Gaming

  • OTW Fannews: Running the Gamut

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Freitag, 30 Januar 2015 - 5:11pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by Alice of with the words 'OTW Fannews: Running the Gamut' with Gamut centered in a tablet, and a quill pen writing the top line in black and a paintbrush writing the bottom line in red.

    • GamaSutra presented a roundup of videogame criticism "on topics ranging from the 'ludocentrism' of games discourse to a different take on Eric Zimmerman's 'Ludic Century.'" The roundup of videogame blogging included a look at German gaming blogs, and a blog post by Maggie Greene that compares "Tales of Xillia to Chinese literary traditions. Specifically, she looks at multiple endings and the effort to capture both tragic compromise and fairy tale and fan-fiction happiness ever-after."
    • Hoodline wrote about a bookstore's book fanfiction with local authors. "We pick a book every month, either one that we just love and is classic, or is just in the zeitgeist for whatever reason, and we assign each writer a character—they don’t get to pick. And then they write 800-1200 words of fan fiction about that character, or heavily featuring them or centered around them. They can do anything they want. Whoever wins gets to come back. The structure of the show is that there are six readers total, and they’re all read by our 'thespian in residence,'...and the audience gets to vote."
    • At The Guardian, Katie Welsh posted about the best vlog reinventions of classic books. "[F]resh-faced teens and twentysomethings aren’t only vlogging about their own lives; they’re dressing up as fictional characters and telling modern reworkings of familiar stories into their webcams as YouTube adaptations of classic novels go viral. The teams behind them may be professional actors or simply fans of the books, and the quality of both scripts and production can vary, but at their best they could give the BBC a run for its money."
    • The Otago Daily Times published a piece on cosplaying runners at Disney. "'I love the atmosphere,' said Lauren Harrell, 27, after she finished the November super heroes race in a hand-painted T-shirt and foam headpiece as Groot, the human-like tree in Disney's Marvel Studios film Guardians of the Galaxy. 'People are cheering you every step of the way. And nobody judges you for dressing in costume,' said Harrell, who had a speaker attached to her waist so she could dance and sing to the Guardians soundtrack." Other half marathons include Disney Princess or Tinker Bell themes.

    How far and wide have you seen fandom activities? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Commercial Exploits

    Von Kiri Van Santen am Freitag, 23 Januar 2015 - 5:27pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    banner by caitie of a monopoly hundred with the OTW logo and the title of this post

    • Many fans of Fall Out Boy launched a petition to protest a proposed event by podcaster Jensen Karp which would revolve around reading "the most ridiculous REAL fanfiction about them on the web." The event was later cancelled though it remained unclear how much participation the band itself had had in the plans.
    • The use of fans' work by third parties was less clear in an announcement by YouTube gamer PewDiePie who launched a fanfic contest with himself as the subject, noting that "The contest will be sponsored by Mountain Dew." Three finalists would have their story submission turned into an animated video. The Terms and Conditions of the contest noted that aside from transferring the rights to all entries (whether they were winners or not) to "Sponsor, Administrator and their agents along with PewDiePie" that the fanworks "must not denegrate the subject, Mountain Dew brand, product and/or trademark."
    • At the American Library Association's District Dispatch, Carrie Russell bemoaned the US Digital Millennium Copyright Act process that also forces OTW Legal to repeatedly defend the exemptions it won for fan video makers in 2009 and 2012. "Here’s the problem: Sometimes DRM gets in the way of actions that are not infringements of copyright. Let’s say you have lawful access to an e-book (you bought the book, fair and square), but you are a person with a print disability, and you need to circumvent to enable text-to-speech (TTS) functionality which has been disabled by DRM. This is a violation of the circumvention provision. One would think that this kind of circumvention is reasonable, because it simply entails making a book accessible to the person that purchased it." Russell called for the exemptions to be made permanent and eliminate the months of time spent by petitioners and government alike.
    • An article in The Guardian highlighted the various benefits of new technology in expanding what producers and consumers are able to exchange (even if fans had long been there first). "The rise of these electronic devices built only for reading has been a boon to the books sector. The transition to digital reading brought with it a new kind of publishing that was distinctly more experimental, energetic and (nakedly) commercial than that which preceded it. Just this week the publisher Little, Brown began publishing ebook shorts based on the hugely successful Broadchurch TV series that are made available to download in the hours after each show."

    How have you seen fans' work adopted and co-opted? Write about it in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Using Fans

    Von Pip Janssen am Sonntag, 11 Januar 2015 - 5:29pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Title written in Star Wars style font by Bremo

    • MacWorld discussed Fancred, a new effort at a social networking site for sports fans. "The sports fan-focused social network is quietly building momentum in a quest to do for sports what LinkedIn has done for professionals. 'We think we’re building the world’s largest fan network,' said CEO Kash Razzaghi." Their strategy involves turning fans into marketing pros. "[T]he platform is also targeting college campuses in a strategy that cribs liberally from the playbook of popular messaging apps. Fancred offers college internships to students who want to be the app’s brand ambassadors... Gaining users on campus will translate to professional growth."
    • Some other sites are cribbing more than fans' time for their projects. Rocket News 24 pointed out how a Nintendo character montage included a fan's artwork. "With over 12 million members and billions of page views per day, Japanese art submission site Pixiv is submitted to by up-and-coming creatives the world over, making it one of the best places for people to showcase their work and get noticed. While few artists have a problem with their work being featured or embedded on other sites–indeed, with proper citation many are glad of the free publicity–Pixiv’s terms of use make it explicitly clear that users should not take or insert a featured artist’s work in another product without prior permission."
    • Meanwhile Fashion & Style speculated that the new Star Wars film would include a fan-created character. "Another name on the list is Captain Phasma, a character who, as SK points out, has only appeared in a fanfic called "Tarkin's Fist". Despite the limited information about the role, /Film, who picked up the story earlier this week, speculates that Gwendoline Christie is a strong contender for the part."
    • The Hollywood Reporter discussed Paramount's use of Wattpad to promote the film Project Almanac. "Wattpad's 35 million users, read, write and engage with stories uploaded online, including a fair amount of fan fiction. The platform...is particularly popular among young women and previously partnered with films like Fox's The Fault in Our Stars, Universal's The Purge: Anarchy and Ouija and three Relativity titles: last year's Romeo and Juliet, Best of Me and Beyond the Lights... 'We have been watching Wattpad for quite some time and think it's a really exciting and new emerging online social destination, not only for young adult book fans to discover and share stories, but beyond that, it's becoming a kind of a hub and influencer-type community, and something that's been bubbling up in terms of social platforms,' Paramount's senior vp, interactive marketing Megan Wahtera tells THR."

    How have you seen fans being used for commercial projects? Write about it in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Learning from Fanfic

    Von Kiri Van Santen am Dienstag, 6 Januar 2015 - 5:58pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    graphic by Ania of a woman reading a book with AO3 open on her computer

    • Technology Tell looked at what fanfiction told them about character popularity in Dragon Age. "The proof is in the sorting. I started my search over at An Archive of Our Own. It has a section set aside for Dragon Age Inquisition fanfiction, and allows people to search by specific character. Cullen is the top result, appearing in 251 stories. He even beats out the main character, the female Inquisitor, as she only has 216 stories...I decided to check the internet’s other, largest repository – Fanfiction.net...it’s clear he’s still a favorite of fanfiction authors. He appears in 588 stories on the site."
    • A post at TV Over Mind instead discussed what kind of fanfiction fans of Suits were writing. "Most tend to pair up Mike Ross and Harvey Specter, seeing as they are the glue that holds Suits together in a sense; without them, the show’s not as interesting to watch as it was before given that Harvey was the one that hired Mike as his associate after being impressed by how much the young man knows about the law. However, there are other pairings as well, like Donna Paulsen and Harvey Specter, because the author wants them to be involved romantically, and since it’s not quite happening on the show just yet, writing a fictional story about it allows for fans of the show to enjoy the possibility of this development."
    • Autostraddle was one of many sites turning to fanfic recs for content. "[T]he future is now and fandom is mainstream and queer women who love pop culture are changing the shape of the world! Part of it is writing/reading fan fiction, which smashes the patriarchy in so many exciting and accessible ways... Faking It is...fun for a lot of reasons, including how the collective power of femslash fandom is what caused Glee and South of Nowhere to buck the fauxmosexual sweeps weeks tropes of yore (thanks, The O.C.!) and really delve into lady-loving relationships on-screen."
    • Rather than rec existing work, Sugarscape decided to get readers to write some. "We're looking for you lot to get as creative as possible, whether that's saliva filled snogs, lustful glances or villainous characters (Ashton Irwin dressed as the Grinch anyone?), so keep it original and feel free to bring in any celebs you fancy. The idea is that every day when the story is updates, you'll have the chance to add the next paragraph all over again and by Sunday 21st December, we'll have the full fan fiction."

    What have you learned from fanfiction? Write about it in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom Education

    Von Please leave a name am Dienstag, 9 Dezember 2014 - 5:47pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by Rachel of a generic Newspaper banner with the OTW logo and the words OTW Fannews
    • At Campaign Asia-Pacific Dave McCaughan wrote about studying fans to develop marketing strategies. "Personally I was a little surprised that when we asked 20,000 people around the world about being a fan of something, only around 40 per cent see themselves as fans. Of that number, 5 per cent say they are die-hard fans. Of course the numbers vary. Higher in the USA, much lower in Hong Kong and China. And this was fans of anything, not limited to football or sports. But as I said it was self-defining. And regardless, the numbers of 'fans' are huge. And among those millions who recognize their devotion, we noted three distinct new behaviors."
    • Loyola University's Student Dispatch wrote about a lecture on Harry Potter's links to Christianity. "John Granger came to speak at Loyola University on 'The Seven Keys to Harry Potter', hosted by the club Alliance for Awesome...He told the crowd that reading the [first] book brought him to tears and the comparisons to Christianity are unmistakable. 'I realized by the end of the book that she was a Christian,' Granger said. 'She chose to entrench the books with Christian symbolism like Narnia.' The lecture continued to dissect each book, and several characters and moments and relate them back to Christianity. Granger also commented on J.K. Rowling and her faith life."
    • NPR reported on Robert Morris University-Illinois' institution of 45 to 50 athletic scholarships to competitive gamers. The "school of 7000 students, reports it has received 70 applications and over 500 email inquiries since the announcement. The only qualm Shaffer has, he said, is the existence of varsity sports in the first place, and the millions of dollars spent on them by universities around the country. 'Whether it makes sense to award scholarships to an academic institution based on performance in a sport (whether electronic or not) is less clear.' In other words, if giving kids money to hit buttons on a controller seems strange, so is rewarding kids who are good at putting a ball through a hole."
    • Fanfiction is increasingly seen as a way to get young people writing, but Camp Lejeune's The Globe profiled a library making fandom a family affair. "'The goal of the event is to celebrate all the fandoms out there and remind people that being a fan of something is good and cool,' said Pittman. 'Also for the families to have something different to do on base and above all have fun.' After competing in costume contests and bean bag toss games, families gathered for popcorn and treats as they watched Marvels 'Guardians of the Galaxy.'"

    Did you get to study fandom in school? Write about your courses in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Working For and Against Fans

    Von Jennifer Rose Hale am Donnerstag, 21 August 2014 - 4:46pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    People engaged in tug of war. Text reads OTW Fannews Working For and Against Fans
    • In February 2014, OTW Legal submitted comments to the European Commission in regards to its copyright regulations review. Now a report is out summing up the responses. "The results are not entirely surprising and very clear: we have a strong divide among copyright stakeholders with end users and institutional users (e.g. libraries, archives, universities) strongly in favor of copyright reform and authors, collective management organizations, publishers and producers in favor of the current copyright system."
    • Australia is undergoing a similar process, and is requesting comments from "interested organisations and individuals on the questions outlined in the discussion paper and on other possible approaches to address this issue." Submissions close on Monday, 1 September 2014. The Australian government is taking a very pro-copyright holder stance emphasizing levels of piracy and saying "Everyone has a role to play in reducing online copyright infringement. Rights holders need to ensure that content can be accessed easily and at a reasonable price. Internet service providers (ISPs) can take reasonable steps to ensure their systems are not used to infringe copyright. Consumers can do the right thing and access content lawfully."
    • Internet Policy Review featured a discussion of copyright in the UK and focused on gaming content. "Valve uses the Steam Workshop as a space where player-created content can be bought. The proceeds then get split between Valve and the item creator....[a fan] began distributing the shirts through a print on demand e-commerce service until Valve sent a takedown request. 'I was kind of under the impression that because Valve is so open to the community profiting - they've got the whole Workshop - I thought maybe they would encourage that sort of thing but they want people to do it through their channels.'...Wild was later contacted by We Love Fine, a third-party which works with Valve to get the company's approval for selling fan-designed products. A couple of his designs are now on the We Love Fine site and his work will also be included in the official shop catalogue for Valve's upcoming multimillion dollar Dota 2 professional gaming tournament."
    • ClickZ told marketers they need to embrace fan content. "This week it was reported that TripAdvisor has created a page for the Grand Budapest Hotel...While the page comes with a disclaimer...the devotion with which fans have thrown themselves into crafting unique user-generated content is very real. To date, more than 120 TripAdvisor users from all over the world have taken the time to review their fictional experience at the fictional hotel, peppering their posts with inside jokes only those who have seen the film would understand. The response demonstrates an interest in the movie that goes beyond the standard consumer reaction to entertainment content. In the literary world, this behavior is most closely related to fan fiction."

    What fandom copyright issues have you been seeing? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom Enabled

    Von Jennifer Rose Hale am Samstag, 9 August 2014 - 5:19pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Industrial machinery with text that reads Fandom Enabled OTW Fannews
    • At Aeon Michelle Nijhuis discusses genderswapping with her daughter. "When I first wrote about my daughter’s Hobbit genderswap, many people said that fanfiction writers were way ahead of us, and so they were: Female Bilbo is a familiar fanfic character. My daughter isn’t the first reader who’s wondered what would happen if a girl stepped into Tolkien’s wonderful, timeless story, and I hope she’s far from the last."
    • Public Knowledge noted that Hasbro is now offering the option of fan-made merchandise through 3-D printing. "Many of these types of fan works are likely protected by fair use. But creating and selling My Little Pony figurines is something that, at a minimum, Hasbro could have tied up in lawsuits for years. To its credit, Hasbro decided not to sue this community of super fans. Instead, they found a way to give them a license to create and profit from their creations. Creators on SuperFanArt can now confidently sell fully licensed versions of their works. The community gets the ability to thrive, Hasbro gets to build good will (and, presumably, a cut of sales), and no one gets sued."
    • NBC News also suggested that 3-D printing might revolutionize the toy industry. "These fan creations are enthusiastically shared on the Internet, kind of like fan fiction, in which people write their own versions of stories that they love. These designs are going to circulate anyway, Liverman said, so companies might as well offer them alongside their own and encourage people to interact with their brand....Charles Mire, founder of Structur3d Printing in Ontario, likens the trend to 'cosplay,' where people dress up like their favorite characters."
    • A The New Yorker featured the reason why The Sims became the first game to represent LGBT experiences, and how this was crucial to its success. "During The Sims’s protracted development, the team had debated whether to permit same-sex relationships in the game. If this digital petri dish was to accurately model all aspects of human life, from work to play and love, it was natural that it would facilitate gay relationships." Instead, "[t]he controversy came this year, when Nintendo released, in the West, its Sims-esque video game Tomodachi Life, a game in which same-sex relationships are forbidden. Characters in Tomodachi Life can bicker, flirt, fall in love, marry, and move in together. But, for many gay people, the game’s denial of same-sex relationships reflected real-world systems that had been built to deny their lifestyle and their biology."

    What fandom-made events or works are your favorites? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom Misunderstandings

    Von Kiri Van Santen am Sonntag, 20 Juli 2014 - 5:28pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by Lisa of a street sign that has been knocked down and is pointing arbitrarily.

    • Attack of the Fanboy put a spotlight on gender segregation in gaming tournaments. "Keeping a few tournaments specifically aimed at females is not an ideal situation, but it does allow a woefully underrepresented part of the population a chance to compete on a professional level. To use the IeSF’s own justification for the initial segregation, many major sports use this method as well. Technically women are allowed in the NBA, but due to various reasons none have been placed on a team. That is why the WNBA exists, to allow a group who would be left out, a chance to compete professionally."
    • While some companies recognize their sport is 'for girls', at The Globe and Mail, Amberly McAteer discussed how many just don't get it. "It’s not just professional baseball that thinks women need extra motivation to support the home team. An official women’s T-shirt from the Pittsburgh Penguins went viral on Twitter because it declared that the wearer 'wants the stick' and loves to 'puck.' Because, of course, women are sex objects. Thanks for your sexist contribution, hockey. The Jays Shop, too, carries mildly insulting women’s gear: sequined tanks, 'meet you in the dugout' deep-vees. The only jerseys available in women’s sizes are indeed the players widely believed to be 'cute,' while the men’s section offers exponentially more."
    • A theater company in Charleston, South Carolina created a play about "the dark side of Twilight fandom". "'Kate & Sam Are Not Breaking Up' is a darkly humorous send-up of Twihard culture and celebrity obsession, with a side of gunplay and a dash of Stephen King's Misery thrown in...The lights come up on Kate and Sam waking from unconsciousness, bound and helpless in the apartment of a crazed superfan named Bill (Andre Hinds). It quickly becomes clear that Bill wants tween America's favorite couple to get back together, and he won't let them go until they do. But the situation really goes to hell when 15-year-old Becky...moderator of the fansite ghostforest.net, shows up and starts laying down the law."
    • A CNN report on manga brought about a heated reaction from fans as well as The Comic Book Legal Defense Fund. "As Japan prepares to implement a new law which bans the possession of child pornography but exempts manga and anime, CNN released an over-the-top sensationalist video report this week that demonstrates a profound lack of knowledge about the formats. Much of the report by Tokyo correspondent Will Ripley is devoted to undercover footage of an Akihabara manga shop, which Ripley calls 'a place that caters to young people.' (In fact manga is read by people of all ages.) Over mostly-blurred footage, Ripley describes “magazines and videos so graphic, so sexually explicit, we turned our undercover cameras off.' ...at least one of those blurred-out covers that was too much for CNN’s delicate cameras actually wasn’t pornographic at all.”

    What troubling fandom issues have you come across? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: The importance of fangirls

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Dienstag, 20 Mai 2014 - 4:00pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by Lisa of a black & white photo of fangirls in the 1940s waving photos

    • Game designer Jane Jensen took issue with the idea of female role models in a Gamasutra post, suggesting that writing hot men is a worthy pursuit. "Reason #1: Female gamers will love you for it. There are, in fact, a large portion of women who play games. According to the ESA, 45% of all gamers are female. This varies greatly by genre, I’m sure. But if women do tend to play the type of game you design for, then why not give them a male character they can salivate over? Because…Reason #2: Male gamers are okay with it...Reason #3: Pop culture says it works."
    • Writer Brian Fies wrote about the problems women have in the comics field beginning, "Comics has a female problem. Girls and women don’t always feel welcome. They bring uninvited baggage, like feelings and opinions. They create and buy the types of stories they want to read. Even worse, sometimes they create and buy ours." He cited how "Cartoonist Noelle Stevenson drew a comic about visiting a local comic book shop to support her friends’ work and being mocked by staff who asked if she wanted to buy a 'My Little Pony' book while she was at it. Stevenson is one of the hottest talents in comics right now, and her webcomic 'Nimona' is a regular stop of mine. She creates the content that keeps those jerks’ shop in business, yet they humiliated her and chased her out the door."
    • Blogger mylifeinverse wrote about the importance of fangirls. "The fandom world isn’t just online, and it isn’t something that pales in comparison to 'real life.'...fandom is something extra, something wonderful, something worth exploring. It is an unbreakable bond with people all over the globe, it is passion that can turn to positive action, and it is an identity that is as real and significant to fans as their last name or hometown." So "Don’t make fun of fangirls; they’re incredibly brave to throw themselves into something with no promise of tangible returns. Don’t dismiss fanfiction; it is proof of passion, of dedication, of skill. Don’t demean fandom; this subculture has a purpose that is in no way sub par."
    • Also important is when fangirls spread their fandom to the next generation. In an article for USA Today, Matthew Forbes wrote about his mother. "Kiss played for about an hour and a half, and my mom held me up on that seatback the entire time. I don't think she caught a single glimpse of Kiss the whole night. Looking back, I don't know how her arms didn't get tired. Today my memories of the show itself are pretty spotty, but I've never forgotten the experience, and never forgotten what my mom did to make sure I got the night of my 11-year-old life."

    Where have you seen the importance of fangirls? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • TWC's Top 10

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Donnerstag, 8 Mai 2014 - 5:00pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Partial view of the TWC word cloud

    One of the OTW's projects is Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), an open-access academic journal dedicated to fandom and fandom studies.

    But don't think that just because it's a peer-reviewed, scholarly quarterly with a bibliographic listing in the MLA bibliography of journals that the contents of TWC aren't for fans like you to enjoy!  Check out this sampling, ranked by number of DOI resolutions:

    1) "Why we should talk about commodifying fan work", by Nele Noppe. How would legalizing fanwork influence the question: should fan work be free?

    2) "Book Review: Boys' love manga: Essays on the sexual ambiguity and cross-cultural fandom of the genre"by Nele Noppe. "The focus of the book remains squarely on the fans of boys' love manga, which makes it relevant to anyone interested in fan studies."

    3) "Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding", by Francesca Coppa. This paper discusses how early female Star Trek fans structured the practices and aesthetics of vidding, in order to heal the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

    4) "'The epic love story of Sam and Dean': 'Supernatural,' queer readings, and the romance of incestuous fan fiction," by Catherine Tosenberger. Tosenberger examines the literary, cultural, and folkloric discourses of incest and queerness as invoked by the show in order to argue that "Wincest" fan fiction is best understood not as a perverse, oppositional reading of a manly dudebro show, but as an expression of readings that are suggested and supported by the text itself.

    5) "Endless loop: A brief history of chiptunes", by Kevin Driscoll and Joshua Diaz. Driscoll and Diaz explore the confusion surrounding what chiptunes is, and how the production and performance of music connected to 80's electronic video game soundtracks "tells an alternate narrative about the hardware, software, and social practices of personal computing in the 1980s and 1990s."

    6) "Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay", by Nicolle Lamerichs. Lamerichs argues that "costuming is a form of fan appropriation that transforms, performs, and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan's own identity," and that "cosplay motivates fans to closely interpret existing texts, perform them, and extend them with their own narratives and ideas."

    7) "Repackaging fan culture", by Suzanne Scott. Scott argues that "the strategic definition of fandom as a gift economy serves as a defensive front to impede encroaching industrial factions" like FanLib and Kindle Worlds, and examines "the Seinfeldian roots" of the social taboo of "regifting," relative to fan culture.

    8) "Thirty political video mashups made between World War II and 2005", by Jonathan McIntosh. The creator of the famed Buffy vs. Edward remix vid explores subversive pre-YouTube remixes.

    9) "Book review: Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture, by Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green", by Melissa A. Click. "Readers with stakes in the tug-of-war between fans and industry will likely enjoy, and be invigorated by, the authors' arguments about spreadability."

    10) "The Web planet: How the changing Internet divided "Doctor Who" fan fiction writers", by Leora Hadas. Hadas explores how evolving participatory culture clashed with traditional fandom modes and came to a head over one Whovian fanfic archive, using the conflict there to argue that "the cultural logics of fandom and of participatory culture might be more separate than they initially appear."

    And if you want to move beyond the Top 10 articles on TWC, here's a word cloud of the most frequently used words taken from the titles of every article that TWC has published in its 6-year history.

    Would you like to help us generate even more words? Head over to Fanhackers to see how you can celebrate acafandom, meta, and more with us—or check out the TWC Submissions Guidelines for submitting your research or essay to the journal!

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