Gender and Sexuality

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom Misunderstandings

    Von Kiri Van Santen am Sonntag, 20 Juli 2014 - 5:28pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by Lisa of a street sign that has been knocked down and is pointing arbitrarily.

    • Attack of the Fanboy put a spotlight on gender segregation in gaming tournaments. "Keeping a few tournaments specifically aimed at females is not an ideal situation, but it does allow a woefully underrepresented part of the population a chance to compete on a professional level. To use the IeSF’s own justification for the initial segregation, many major sports use this method as well. Technically women are allowed in the NBA, but due to various reasons none have been placed on a team. That is why the WNBA exists, to allow a group who would be left out, a chance to compete professionally."
    • While some companies recognize their sport is 'for girls', at The Globe and Mail, Amberly McAteer discussed how many just don't get it. "It’s not just professional baseball that thinks women need extra motivation to support the home team. An official women’s T-shirt from the Pittsburgh Penguins went viral on Twitter because it declared that the wearer 'wants the stick' and loves to 'puck.' Because, of course, women are sex objects. Thanks for your sexist contribution, hockey. The Jays Shop, too, carries mildly insulting women’s gear: sequined tanks, 'meet you in the dugout' deep-vees. The only jerseys available in women’s sizes are indeed the players widely believed to be 'cute,' while the men’s section offers exponentially more."
    • A theater company in Charleston, South Carolina created a play about "the dark side of Twilight fandom". "'Kate & Sam Are Not Breaking Up' is a darkly humorous send-up of Twihard culture and celebrity obsession, with a side of gunplay and a dash of Stephen King's Misery thrown in...The lights come up on Kate and Sam waking from unconsciousness, bound and helpless in the apartment of a crazed superfan named Bill (Andre Hinds). It quickly becomes clear that Bill wants tween America's favorite couple to get back together, and he won't let them go until they do. But the situation really goes to hell when 15-year-old Becky...moderator of the fansite ghostforest.net, shows up and starts laying down the law."
    • A CNN report on manga brought about a heated reaction from fans as well as The Comic Book Legal Defense Fund. "As Japan prepares to implement a new law which bans the possession of child pornography but exempts manga and anime, CNN released an over-the-top sensationalist video report this week that demonstrates a profound lack of knowledge about the formats. Much of the report by Tokyo correspondent Will Ripley is devoted to undercover footage of an Akihabara manga shop, which Ripley calls 'a place that caters to young people.' (In fact manga is read by people of all ages.) Over mostly-blurred footage, Ripley describes “magazines and videos so graphic, so sexually explicit, we turned our undercover cameras off.' ...at least one of those blurred-out covers that was too much for CNN’s delicate cameras actually wasn’t pornographic at all.”

    What troubling fandom issues have you come across? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Legal Confusion

    Von Kiri Van Santen am Freitag, 18 Juli 2014 - 5:17pm
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    • The Washington Post was one of many media outlets covering the U.S. Trademark Office's decision to cancel the Redskins trademark registration. "The 99-page decision by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board said the team’s name and logo are disparaging. It dilutes the Redskins’ legal protection against infringement and hinders the team’s ability to block counterfeit merchandise from entering the country. But its effect is largely symbolic. The ruling cannot stop the team from selling T-shirts, beer glasses and license-plate holders with the moniker or keep the team from trying to defend itself against others who try to profit from the logo."
    • The Wisconsin State Law Library pointed to a book about trademarks and fan-created content in the wake of the Klinger v. Conan Doyle Estate decision. The book in question is about trademarks and fan-created content from the perspective of trademark owners which doesn’t really acknowledge fans’ rights to make fair uses— but instead is about “tolerating” use. It’s an older work, and an example of the way that trademark owners used to assume that they were always the ones who got to decide how their works would be received.
    • io9 put a spotlight on a study about filk. "Women in the filk community are more likely than men to create original melodies to accompany their lyrics, while women are only somewhat more likely to borrow from others' lyrics than are men. Because filk is often viewed as an imitative culture, the tendency of women to depart from that ethos in creating their own melodies seems significant...female respondents were much more likely to define fair use as not profiting from others' work, and somewhat more likely to define it as giving credit to the original author and making private as opposed to public use of a protected work."
    • The YALSA blog posted about Fandom and Fair Use but made some problematic claims. For example, it does not actually discuss what fair use is and provides questionable examples. Crunchyroll claims to be fully licensed and even Disney has now embraced user-generated content. Instead what the YALSA post demonstrates is an example of copyright confusion: people think that some things aren’t “allowed” when in fact either fair use law or licensing is on their side.

    What confusing legal fandom issues have you come across? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Shining a Light

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Mittwoch, 2 Juli 2014 - 4:03pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by James of a foggy view of trees

    • OTW Fan Video & Multimedia Committee Chair Tisha Turk gave an interview on "the past, present and potential future of vidding and remix culture, and the murky status of fair use – at least when it comes to monetized remixes on YouTube" as well as her own start as a vidder. Discussing copyright claims on fanwork, she said "One possible analogy would be, if I were making a quilt out of various bolts of fabric I purchased, and I cut these pieces, and I piece them together, and add the backing, and I make this lovely quilt, and the people who made the fabrics show up and say: 'I want a cut.' Or: 'You can’t have the profit, I made the fabric, so hand it over.’"
    • The Fandom Post discussed activism around female characters in Star Wars fandom. "Were we wrong to point out our concerns about the first cast photos? Wrong to express dissatisfaction over the lack of Leia in the first wave from the Disney Store? Wrong to share our disappointment that the Star Wars Rebels announcements included the women last and their action figures won’t happen until the second wave? Perhaps if only one of those things had happened, downplaying the outbreak of concern would make sense. It’s never just one thing, though...Staying silent and hoping for the best isn’t the way to create or support change. We need to speak up each and every time."
    • A post at Teleread expressed concern at how site changes can affect writer and reader interaction. "Nobody should have to deal with that kind of abuse, thick skin or not. And it’s sad that it seems to be coming more and more common. It’s in the same vein as the writer who received rape threats for criticizing a comic book cover. How obnoxious our culture has become. We’ve seen time and again that some people use anonymity as a license to be as nasty as they possibly can. It would be great if Fanfiction.net could restore the ability for authors to block anonymous reviews altogether if they wanted. At the very least, the default for reviews after 36 hours should be rejection, not acceptance."
    • A New York Times interview with showrunner Damon Lindelof explored the long-term effects of fan reaction. "Initially, for Lindelof, this kind of fame was very attractive — he interacted eagerly with the fan base of 'Lost,' stoking their expectations and ruminations about the show’s labyrinthine plot...'The longer you tell a story, the larger the stakes have to be,' he says. 'It’s no longer satisfying to say: Are these people who crashed in this plane going to make it out O.K.? Are they going to fall in love? Are they going to live? Are they going to die? It’s like no, are they going to save the world?' In the end, they did save the world, but the way they did it left some faithful viewers unhappy. Cuse has made his peace with this; Lindelof still hasn’t."

    What aspects of fandom do you want to shine a light on? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Uncomfortable Topics

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Sonntag, 15 Juni 2014 - 3:57pm
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    • At Buzzfeed, Alison Vingiano wrote about the history of trigger warnings. "By the early 2000s, the term had found its way to LiveJournal, where it was used on fan fiction. Gaby Dunn, a writer and early adopter of Tumblr and LiveJournal, said when she was using LiveJournal around 2001, fan fiction communities warned one another of explicit content but seldom used the phrase that has been adopted today. 'When we’d write fan fiction on LiveJournal, we might say, ‘This includes a rape storyline,’ or something, but that phrase [‘trigger warning’] was never used.'"
    • Australia's Star Observer wrote about the Queermance festival "Despite the demographic of those attending, [organizer] Lang stressed Queermance was a queer festival, and most of the authors and industry professionals speaking on panels and delivering workshops came from the queer community. The strange dynamic this created, where queer industry professionals were addressing a mostly-straight audience, was a topic of conversation for festival attendees." Speaking about the ethics of this difference, he argued "'truthfulness' [was] more important when it came to representations of marginalised groups...'I know some of them do feel it’s escapism and why can’t we write the fluffy, romantic stories where men are in touch with their feelings and all that… Can you idealise men? Yes. Can you idealise men to the point where it’s no longer realistic and attainable, and is that desirable? I don’t know.'”
    • A post at Gender Focus by Amy Imhoff discussed Gender, Power and Violence in Fandom. "[W]e wonder why some male geeks want women to be pliable creatures, affirming their life choices by agreeing with them at all times or existing for their visual, sexualized pleasure. If you dare to defy these stereotypes, you are automatically a total bitch who can’t take a joke, needs to lighten up, shouldn’t be upset because any male attention is good attention, or are being dramatic. Even Felicia Day mentioned in her blog post that as a result of her championing the #YesAllWomen hashtag, she knows she’ll get numerous unfollows and trolls bloating the comments by insisting that feminism = hating men."
    • A post at Smart Bitches, Trashy Books also touched on#YesAllWomen and fan conventions. "It took me me a while to see how BayCon, Smart Bitches, and other places, real and virtual, where we share our passions and our stories, intersect with #yesallwomen. They are, in essence, the same thing - flawed, messy spaces in which people struggle to find community, hope, and liberation. They are places in which we gather for support. They are places in which we gather to have our stories heard, and they are places where we struggle to understand our history and create a vision of the future."

    What fandom debates have you heard about? Create some entries for them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fannish Histories

    Von Kiri Van Santen am Mittwoch, 4 Juni 2014 - 5:49pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    fannish histories

    • The New York Daily News was one of several media outlets reviewing a book about Bob Dylan fans. "These anecdotes are juicy enough and artfully told, but they don’t get at the heart of what makes Dylan fandom different from other kinds of fandom. The Beatles, the Ramones, Neil Young and Madonna, just to name a few, have all inspired similar obsessions. Hyperactive tape trading, for one, certainly isn’t unique to Dylan fans. Just ask any Deadhead. It’s only when Kinney turns to the Dylanologists that have devoted their lives to ferreting out the meanings behind Dylan’s music and art — rather than collecting his grandmother’s candy bowls — does he get at what makes Dylan so singularly attractive, and infuriating."
    • While quite a few sites highlight fan art, Hypable's look focused on the fan as well as the work. "I don’t think there was ever a time in my life when I didn’t spend all day watching TV. It started with Cartoon Network and as I grew up it moved on to sitcoms, crime shows, medical shows, sci-fi… I always loved making manips, I started when I was about 10 years old. I didn’t have photoshop back then so I used Paint to crop pictures and it could take a few days to crop one. Then my uncle gave me a CD with Photoshop and made my life 100 times easier and my manips 100 times better."
    • K-Drama Stars also did a fannish profile of a Nigerian fan whose homesickness was eased by fandom. "Oky thinks that American television has a lot to learn from k-dramas in terms of the way they portray romance. Less can be more when it comes to creating dramatic romantic tension. 'They can express it more PG,' she said...Watching the dramas made her more curious about Asian culture, which she knew little about when she first moved to America. Now, she is learning the Korean language and has plans to visit South Korea next year."
    • Club Jade looked at the history of women in Star Wars fandom. "I have been very lucky in that I did most of my fandom growing up in spaces that were heavily female, from the early ship-war days to Club Jade to the fanfic community. That’s not to say jerks don’t happen in such spaces – the Star Ladies invented Attack Pattern Clinique back in the days of AOL chat rooms for a reason – but for the most part I ‘grew up’ in fandom areas where women and their contributions were unquestioned, where the idea that Star Wars needs more women was simply a given."

    What's your fannish history been? Write about what you've seen on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: The importance of fangirls

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Dienstag, 20 Mai 2014 - 4:00pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by Lisa of a black & white photo of fangirls in the 1940s waving photos

    • Game designer Jane Jensen took issue with the idea of female role models in a Gamasutra post, suggesting that writing hot men is a worthy pursuit. "Reason #1: Female gamers will love you for it. There are, in fact, a large portion of women who play games. According to the ESA, 45% of all gamers are female. This varies greatly by genre, I’m sure. But if women do tend to play the type of game you design for, then why not give them a male character they can salivate over? Because…Reason #2: Male gamers are okay with it...Reason #3: Pop culture says it works."
    • Writer Brian Fies wrote about the problems women have in the comics field beginning, "Comics has a female problem. Girls and women don’t always feel welcome. They bring uninvited baggage, like feelings and opinions. They create and buy the types of stories they want to read. Even worse, sometimes they create and buy ours." He cited how "Cartoonist Noelle Stevenson drew a comic about visiting a local comic book shop to support her friends’ work and being mocked by staff who asked if she wanted to buy a 'My Little Pony' book while she was at it. Stevenson is one of the hottest talents in comics right now, and her webcomic 'Nimona' is a regular stop of mine. She creates the content that keeps those jerks’ shop in business, yet they humiliated her and chased her out the door."
    • Blogger mylifeinverse wrote about the importance of fangirls. "The fandom world isn’t just online, and it isn’t something that pales in comparison to 'real life.'...fandom is something extra, something wonderful, something worth exploring. It is an unbreakable bond with people all over the globe, it is passion that can turn to positive action, and it is an identity that is as real and significant to fans as their last name or hometown." So "Don’t make fun of fangirls; they’re incredibly brave to throw themselves into something with no promise of tangible returns. Don’t dismiss fanfiction; it is proof of passion, of dedication, of skill. Don’t demean fandom; this subculture has a purpose that is in no way sub par."
    • Also important is when fangirls spread their fandom to the next generation. In an article for USA Today, Matthew Forbes wrote about his mother. "Kiss played for about an hour and a half, and my mom held me up on that seatback the entire time. I don't think she caught a single glimpse of Kiss the whole night. Looking back, I don't know how her arms didn't get tired. Today my memories of the show itself are pretty spotty, but I've never forgotten the experience, and never forgotten what my mom did to make sure I got the night of my 11-year-old life."

    Where have you seen the importance of fangirls? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fan activism

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Mittwoch, 14 Mai 2014 - 4:57pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by dogtagsandsmut of a black and white photo of protesters holdings signs along with images of peace sign, a heart, and an open book.

    • Indiewire hosted a post about a petition to the MTV Awards. The "Heroes" category overlooked an obvious candidate. "[I]t's still noteworthy that among MTV's 16 categories, the only other group without any female nominees is Best Male Performance. Katniss' exclusion, then, doesn't make sense from either a commercial point of view -- The Hunger Games was the highest-grossing film of 2013 -- or from a J. Law one, since the Oscar winner is nominated in four other categories...The character of Katniss is enough of a cultural touchstone that she appeared in one of the 'Heroes' montages at this year's Oscars, so MTV definitely done goofed."
    • A planned webseries on artists' rights seeks to educate viewers about copyright, the internet and creativity. "CopyMe is "an infographic-style animated webseries that deals with our modern attitude to copying. It assembles the most relevant information and makes it accessible to everyone" so that it "will appeal both to copyright literates, as well as to those with no previous knowledge on these topics. Our biggest goal is to raise awareness and highlight our concerns regarding the copyright realities of today."
    • A Wall Street Journal article about L.J. Smith quoted current and former OTW staffers, Heidi Tandy and Francesca Coppa. "'It feels like a land grab,' said Francesca Coppa...'Big companies are trying to insert themselves explicitly to get people who don't know any better to sign away rights to things that might be profitable.'" Indeed, the article notes that "Ms. Smith says that when she began publishing her Vampire Diaries fan fiction on Amazon this past January, she wasn't aware that she was giving up the copyright to those stories, too. Nor did she realize she'd be giving Alloy a cut of earnings from the new stories."
    • One of our favorite pieces of activism this week is a little biased. White Collar Vids created a vidlet for the OTW's October membership drive in 2012 -- take a look!

    What examples of fan activism have you seen? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom risks

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Sonntag, 11 Mai 2014 - 3:22pm
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    • A variety of articles derived from an Anhui TV segment reported that 20 women writing slash fiction were arrested in China as part of an effort to "create a healthy cyberspace." As The Diplomat pointed out though, the purge was very narrowly targeted. "Indeed, if the various crackdowns in the past were actually aimed at porn, it’s hard to understand how some of the largest porn sites have somehow slipped through the cracks. If you want to read reports from Amnesty International or the New York Times in China, you are bang out of luck unless you have a VPN. Still, the glorious proletariat can look at Porn.com until they’re blue in the face."
    • Anuradha Lingappa wrote in the Whitman College Pioneer about sexual assaults in Harry Potter fandom. "The recent accusations mirror an incident a couple years ago when an Internet-famous musician who wrote songs about similarly 'nerdy' topics was arrested on several counts of child pornography. He pled guilty to soliciting sexually explicit content from underage fans. He moved in the same circles as some of the men who are currently accused, even accompanying their bands on tour. The response to his arrest was disappointing. No one wanted to talk about it. If there had been serious discussion about preventing sexual violence within fandoms, maybe things wouldn’t have gotten so far."
    • Author N.K. Jemisin discussed confirmation bias. "Confirmation bias doesn’t cause the phenomenon of Mysteriously Whitewashed Medieval Europe. (Or Peculiarly Denuded of Women Europe, or Puzzlingly Focused On The Nobility Europe, or any of the other bizarre things we tend to see in medieval Europe-flavored fantasy.) Confirmation bias causes the freakouts that occur whenever somebody points out these phenomena, and names them as inaccuracies. Like the 'go kill yourself' messages Medieval PoC has gotten for simply pointing out that people of color could easily have been present in a game set in central Bohemia."

    What examples of fandom risks have you seen? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in an OTW Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Gendered fandom friction

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Freitag, 9 Mai 2014 - 4:27pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Banner by Erin of characters from My Little Pony facing off against one another.

    • At Antenna, Myles McNutt argued for the need to focus on male fandom. "Blue Mountain State has connected with young audiences outside of the metrics and discourses most easily visible and counted within the television industry." By this, McNutt means that "the vast majority of the Kickstarter contributors—over 3,200 as of April 16th—are male. This matches the series’ demographic appeals...but diverges from how we typically imagine fan engagement...we rarely consider those audiences as the type of fans who would go so far as to pay to see a series resurrected. That kind of organized fandom has more commonly been associated with women, as part of a broader feminization of fan culture—over half of the Veronica Mars kickstarter backers were women, for instance, despite the fact that Kickstarter’s membership is predominantly male."
    • While the advantages of gender-balanced fandoms are obvious to some marketers, researcher CarrieLynn D. Reinhard discusses fractured fandoms. "This project explores the tensions in the fan discourse surrounding the My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic movie Equestria Girls. Producer Hasbro operates an official Facebook page for My Little Pony that was used to market the movie. With each post, fans’ comments demonstrate the tensions within the fandom and to this film. These tensions demonstrate the range of subsets of the fandom due to its cross-gendered and cross-generational nature. The discourse and resulting fractured fandom highlights the issue of 'appropriateness' in reception of children’s programming."
    • Megan Farnel wrote about gendered disputes in Sherlock fandom. "[I]t’s not like the argument that Moffat is more than a tad sexist is a new one, or anything, but I find the form it takes here particularly compelling. Does he truly think he’s fooling anyone by saying that an episode involving a scene that so clearly mocks slash-fiction writers, calling them 'out of their mind' and arguing they are not 'serious' enough, comes to us from the ACD canon?" Instead "I think a lot of it comes down to labour and gender. This move on Moffat’s part at once allows him to use the canon of the show to respond to the fans he deems not ‘serious’ enough, while also deeming their engagements with the show as any meaningful form of labour worth forming a dialogue with."
    • Of course, sometimes gendered friction can be quite local when, as Toronto Life published, discovering your spouse's explicit fanfiction. "What to do depends largely on where you found it. If the pages were tucked away in a drawer, buy her some sexy lingerie, then rise to the occasion, but don’t mention your discovery. If she left the story open on the kitchen table, take it as an invitation to discuss her rather specific sexual pinings. Be open, accepting and prepared to spice things up in the bedroom (or bathroom or kitchen)."

    What examples of gendered fandom friction have you seen? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • TWC's Top 10

    Von Claudia Rebaza am Donnerstag, 8 Mai 2014 - 5:00pm
    Nachrichtenart:

    Partial view of the TWC word cloud

    One of the OTW's projects is Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), an open-access academic journal dedicated to fandom and fandom studies.

    But don't think that just because it's a peer-reviewed, scholarly quarterly with a bibliographic listing in the MLA bibliography of journals that the contents of TWC aren't for fans like you to enjoy!  Check out this sampling, ranked by number of DOI resolutions:

    1) "Why we should talk about commodifying fan work", by Nele Noppe. How would legalizing fanwork influence the question: should fan work be free?

    2) "Book Review: Boys' love manga: Essays on the sexual ambiguity and cross-cultural fandom of the genre"by Nele Noppe. "The focus of the book remains squarely on the fans of boys' love manga, which makes it relevant to anyone interested in fan studies."

    3) "Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding", by Francesca Coppa. This paper discusses how early female Star Trek fans structured the practices and aesthetics of vidding, in order to heal the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

    4) "'The epic love story of Sam and Dean': 'Supernatural,' queer readings, and the romance of incestuous fan fiction," by Catherine Tosenberger. Tosenberger examines the literary, cultural, and folkloric discourses of incest and queerness as invoked by the show in order to argue that "Wincest" fan fiction is best understood not as a perverse, oppositional reading of a manly dudebro show, but as an expression of readings that are suggested and supported by the text itself.

    5) "Endless loop: A brief history of chiptunes", by Kevin Driscoll and Joshua Diaz. Driscoll and Diaz explore the confusion surrounding what chiptunes is, and how the production and performance of music connected to 80's electronic video game soundtracks "tells an alternate narrative about the hardware, software, and social practices of personal computing in the 1980s and 1990s."

    6) "Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay", by Nicolle Lamerichs. Lamerichs argues that "costuming is a form of fan appropriation that transforms, performs, and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan's own identity," and that "cosplay motivates fans to closely interpret existing texts, perform them, and extend them with their own narratives and ideas."

    7) "Repackaging fan culture", by Suzanne Scott. Scott argues that "the strategic definition of fandom as a gift economy serves as a defensive front to impede encroaching industrial factions" like FanLib and Kindle Worlds, and examines "the Seinfeldian roots" of the social taboo of "regifting," relative to fan culture.

    8) "Thirty political video mashups made between World War II and 2005", by Jonathan McIntosh. The creator of the famed Buffy vs. Edward remix vid explores subversive pre-YouTube remixes.

    9) "Book review: Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture, by Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green", by Melissa A. Click. "Readers with stakes in the tug-of-war between fans and industry will likely enjoy, and be invigorated by, the authors' arguments about spreadability."

    10) "The Web planet: How the changing Internet divided "Doctor Who" fan fiction writers", by Leora Hadas. Hadas explores how evolving participatory culture clashed with traditional fandom modes and came to a head over one Whovian fanfic archive, using the conflict there to argue that "the cultural logics of fandom and of participatory culture might be more separate than they initially appear."

    And if you want to move beyond the Top 10 articles on TWC, here's a word cloud of the most frequently used words taken from the titles of every article that TWC has published in its 6-year history.

    Would you like to help us generate even more words? Head over to Fanhackers to see how you can celebrate acafandom, meta, and more with us—or check out the TWC Submissions Guidelines for submitting your research or essay to the journal!

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