Spotlight

  • The censorship problems faced by anime and manga fans

    By Claudia Rebaza on vendredi, 11 July 2014 - 4:09pm
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    Banner by Erin of a spotlight on an OTW logo with the words 'Spotlight on Legal Issues'

    The following post was written by Fanhackers chair Nele Noppe.

    For fans of manga, anime, and other Japanese media, pointing and laughing at inaccurate mass media portrayals of Japanese pop culture has been something of a sport for decades. A few weeks ago, however, things took a slightly more serious turn.

    The ball got rolling when early in June, the Japanese House of Representatives approved a long-overdue law banning the possession of child pornography. Up to now, creating and distributing child pornography was as forbidden in Japan as anywhere else, but “simple possession” had not yet been criminalized. The new law applies only to “real” child pornography and leaves alone completely fictional depictions of underage characters in sexual situations in manga, anime and other media. This exception came about after vocal protests from manga publishers, creators, fans and free speech rights activists. The story was widely reported in non-Japanese media. However, most of these reports focused on handwringing about Japan's “failure” to clamp down on sexually explicit manga. Most shared was a CNN article filled with outrage about how the new law supposedly permits Japanese bookstores to fill their shelves with shocking cartoon porn about children.

    As the Comic Book Legal Defense Fund (CBLDF) pointed out in a scathing reaction post, CNN’s report was highly misleading and uninformed, misrepresenting manga in general as pornographic and painting the “freedom of speech" arguments against the new law as no more than the lobbying of a large industry bent on making profit from icky virtual child pornography. The comments section of the CNN article quickly filled with anime and manga fans fact-checking the text and refuting its arguments.

    Their support, and that of the CBLDF, was of some small comfort to Japanese creators and activists who were aghast at their portrayal in Western media. Simple complaining about "Japanese cartoon porn" is, by now, no more than sadly familiar. Sensation-hungry Western news outlets have been creating miniature moral panics out of that ever since they realized that in Japan, comics and animation are media that are used to express not just "kiddy stuff" but every kind of content, including pornography.

    This uproar went further in the sense that it represented manga creators and free speech activists as money-grubbing child pornographers. CNN and other news sources seemed unaware that in Japan, unlike in the United States, laws that restrict depictions of sexuality in media actually are a very serious freedom of speech issue, and have been so since immediately after WWII. Japanese creators and publishers of sexually explicit material who yell about free speech rights are not just demanding the right to do whatever they like; they are continuing half a century of protests against arbitrary and outdated censorship laws.

    A look at Japanese legal history

    Japanese authorities have used and continue to use laws against “obscenity” to attempt to control what gets published in the country. Before and during WWII, such laws were among several used to suppress any speech that did not support Japanese militarism. After the war, freedom of speech was guaranteed in Japan’s new constitution, but still restricted by only one remaining bit of pre-war legislation: Article 175 of the Criminal Code of Japan, which prohibits the sale or distribution of materials that contain “obscenity” (waisetsu).

    Other countries at the time also attempted to legally curtail “obscene” media, of course, but Japan’s anti-obscenity law turned out to have bigger teeth than many others. For instance, in the 1950s and 1960s, the US, Britain, and Japan all held separate trials about obscenity contained in the D.H. Lawrence novel Lady Chatterley’s Lover. In the US and Britain, the trials ended in acquittals, greatly reducing the subsequent relevancy of obscenity laws for media in those countries. In Japan, however, Lady Chatterly was judged obscene. The victory of the prosecution in this first postwar Japanese “obscenity” trial was an important precedent, because it confirmed that obscenity laws were a stick that authorities could beat publishers and authors with whenever they were displeased with the direction Japan’s creative sector was going in. Lady Chatterley was the first in a series of protracted and much-publicized “obscenity” trials that covered many different media, from books to film to photographs to manga. (See Cather for in-depth analysis of censorship in Japan.)

    Far from being discouraged, the Japanese media industry made dodging of the censors into an art form. Manga creators, for instance, got very creative in figuring out ways to depict naked bodies and sex without showing pubic hair (long a no-no) or genitalia. Article 175 and related laws and local ordinances were applied so rarely and so inconsistently that the creators and publishers who did end up getting charged were usually very surprised to be singled out. Still, many of the obscenity trials turned into platforms for broad swathes of Japan’s literary world and media industry to try and wrestle back their right to publish freely from the state. Many feel that bureaucrats and police have no business deciding what people are allowed to read in order to protect a vague and constantly-shifting idea of "public morality".

    No matter how rarely used, laws against obscenity, and (especially since the 1990s) a mushrooming multitude of local ordinances against “harmful” media, do influence what can get published, what can be on library shelves, and what people can write and draw. The chilling effect of even potential legal troubles was - and still is - considerable for authors and publishers. Only weeks ago, a new manga by an assistant mangaka working on the popular series Attack on Titan was cancelled because its publisher feared that it might run afoul of a local ordinance in Tokyo aimed at curtailing the spread of “unhealthy publications”.

    The fandom effect

    Censors’ attention turned to manga and fan culture after 1989, when a serial killer turned out to possess large amounts of sexually explicit anime and be a participant in Comiket, Japan’s largest convention for fan manga (doujinshi). This led Japanese media to engage in what fans called "otaku bashing".

    Although stigmatization of fans as socially maladjusted and possibly dangerous loners has lessened much since then, its effects are still felt. The most recent high-profile “obscenity” trial, a five-year legal battle that ended in 2007 with a guilty verdict from the Supreme Court of Japan, was about a manga (more on that trial). Commentators and scholars argue that manga has become a target for censorship, at least in part, because anime, manga, and Japanese fan culture in general have been gaining much attention and acclaim overseas. The Japanese government has been trying to turn that attention into money with various “Cool Japan” campaigns aimed at promoting Japanese media products and tourism to Japan.

    Polemics in foreign media about the less photogenic parts of Japanese pop culture, like adult manga, are then unwelcome indeed. Some warn that with the Tokyo Olympics coming up in 2020, local and national authorities in Japan may get even more sensitive to foreign handwringing about “Japanese cartoon porn”. However valid that fear may or may not be, last month’s new flap about manga and anime highlights how uninformed many media outlets still are about Japan, and how little any articles about non-English fandoms in the mass media can be trusted. Shallow and alarmist reporting by major and (somewhat) respected news sources like the BBC and CNN reinforces orientalist stereotypes about Japan and its people being somehow lacking in sexual morals. Clearly, it also does great harm to the cause of activists who are fighting to keep bureaucrats and police from gaining tools to control what can be published by the Japanese media, professional and amateur.

    Last month’s incident also highlights the growing importance of free speech rights to fan communities. Laws against “obscenity” or so-called “virtual child pornography” are still low on the radar of many English-speaking fans, especially compared to copyright woes. However, the example of Japan shows that these laws can and do have a very direct impact on what fans can make and distribute.

    Past and recent cases

    In Japan, the extremely popular fan-made manga called doujinshi have to follow the law just as much as commercially published manga. Fans are free to draw what they like in private, but if they want to distribute their fanworks in any way, they have to apply censor bars or mosaics to anything that might possibly catch the attention of censors. Just like with professional manga, the law is applied only rarely and inconsistently, but anti-obscenity laws have still led to legal troubles for individual fans and disruptions of fan activities and fannish infrastructure.

    For instance, in the midst of a “harmful books” polemic that followed the arrest of the “otaku” serial killer in 1989, “police confiscated thousands of doujinshi from merchants in Tokyo’s Shinjuku Ward and arrested several shop owners” (Japan Times). In 1991, doujinshi convention Comiket was forced to move out of its convention site Makuhari Messe because police had received complaints about the fanworks being distributed there (Comiket welcomed over two hundred thousand visitors around that time and hosted 11,000 fanwork creators). Doujinshi conventions began to enforce anti-obscenity measures and check every fanwork on sale to make sure it followed guidelines about obscuring genitals and warning buyers of sexual content on the covers. Still, in 1994 and on several other occasions, further conventions had to be cancelled or moved because of complaints about possible "harmful material" being distributed.

    “Obscenity” issues were shown to be connected with copyright problems in 1999 when a a female creator of sexually explicit doujinshi for the popular children's game and anime series Pokemon was arrested for copyright infringement, apparently after someone complained about the explicit material to copyright holder Nintendo. In 2007, a doujinshi creator was arrested and eventually fined because his self-censorship of his works was not sufficient. This lead doujinshi conventions (and online doujinshi shop DLsite) to tighten enforcement of censorship regulations, and the Japan Doujinshi Printing Group to issue self-censorship guidelines for all fans who wanted to have their doujinshi printed by its member printing companies. Later in 2007, a building which had been used by several doujinshi conventions was closed to conventions that feature sexually explicit doujinshi. In 2009, the manager of a doujinshi shop shop was arrested on suspicion of distributing obscene material (NSFW link). Today, various links in the creation and distribution chain of doujinshi - doujinshi printers, conventions, and doujin shops - continue to impress upon fans the importance of “self-regulation" (jishu kisei, in practice “self-censorship") when distributing fanworks.

    Unsurprisingly, censorship issues are at least as important as copyright issues for Japanese fans. Around 2010, for instance, Japanese fan communities were actively involved in a battle to defeat a local ordinance in Tokyo that attempted to forbid the distribution of material containing sexual depictions of ill-defined “nonexistent youths” (more in this TWC article).

    Worldwide effects

    Japanese laws are not the only ones causing problems for fans. Outside Japan, several fans have gotten in serious trouble because the manga they love were considered “child pornography” by authorities. The CLBDF has been particularly active in chronicling these cases and sometimes providing legal support to fans. In 2010, for instance, a U.S. manga fan was sentenced to jail because manga in his collection contained “drawings of children being sexually abused". Also in 2010, another U.S. manga fan was arrested at the Canadian border for similar reasons, at least the second time this sort of arrest happened in Canada. Several more fans have reported online that they were questioned at the Canadian border because they were carrying manga. In 2012, there was a small victory as Swedish manga translator Simon Lundström was cleared of child pornography charges brought on by several manga on his computer.

    This string of worldwide incidents surrounding manga, and the uproar in Western media about Japan’s “refusal” to criminalize “virtual child pornography”, shines a light on how little attention most countries outside Japan have paid to the question of whether it makes sense to extend anti-child pornography laws to depictions of entirely fictional children. Some countries, like Australia and Canada, do extend their definitions of “child pornography” to media that contain absolutely no real children, only fictional characters. In the US, this cannot be prosecuted as child pornography, but it can be prosecuted under general obscenity laws if it meets the standard for obscenity (as judged by community standards, patently offensive sexually explicit depictions that lack literary, artistic, political, or scientific value).

    However, these laws mostly passed with very little public consultation or debate (see McLelland). There was often no serious inquiry into the question of whether “virtual child pornography” is actually harmful to anyone, and why it should be banned while fictional depictions of other crimes are fine and dandy. Objections about a lack of scientific evidence to link “virtual child pornography” to real harm, and objections about potential censorship, are easily brushed aside in the midst of moral panics about “protecting children”. According to Kotaro Ogino of the Japanese free speech organization Uguisu Ribbon Campaign, this problem is occurring in Japan as well, leading to the constant battles about potential criminalization of “virtual child pornography” that are taking place there today (personal communication).

    Also problematic is that, unlike in Japan, many citizens of these countries are not aware it may be illegal for them to make fictional depictions of sexual situations involving minors. Many fandoms such as Harry Potter or Attack on Titan have thriving shipping communities around underage characters. In theory, that puts some fan creators in the crosshairs of anti-child pornography laws. The fact that laws against “virtual child pornography” are rarely or inconsistently enforced does not mean they are harmless. The outcome of the constant fight that Japanese fans, mangaka, and publishers are waging against censorship laws may turn out to be very relevant for non-Japanese fans as well.

    For more information

    More news and information about censorship problems that impact Japanese and non-Japanese fans of anime and manga can be found on the CBLDF website, the blog of translator Dan Kanemitsu, Anime News Network, and in the articles tagged with “censorship” in the OTW’s fan studies bibliography.

  • Better Understanding Fair Use

    By Claudia Rebaza on vendredi, 20 June 2014 - 3:59pm
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    Banner by Erin of a spotlight on an OTW logo with the words 'Spotlight on Legal Issues'

    Recently, PlagiarismToday attempted to explain “5 Copyright Terms” that are, they felt, being used incorrectly. One of those terms was “Fair Use” - but unfortunately, their attempted explanation fell far short of correct.

    They claim that Fair Use is “infringement of a work where the court has determined that the infringer is not liable”.

    That’s not true. Fair Use is a lawful use of copyright. (See Lenz v. Universal Music Corp, 572 F. Supp. 2d 1150 (N.D. Ca. 2008)). As the US Copyright Office says, Fair Use is a “limitation” on the rights of the owner of copyright, and thus others who have not been authorized by the owner can reproduce the work; courts have held that this reproduction right includes the right to create transformative works.

    While, as the Copyright Office says, the “distinction between what is fair use and what is infringement in a particular case will not always be clear or easily defined...” US courts have ruled in numerous cases on what those parameters are. The entire concept of precedent in US law means that “principles established in earlier cases” can be used to decide new cases with similar facts and issues. You don’t have to be the Supreme Court to see that Fair Use can apply in numerous situations.

    PlagiarismToday misleadingly suggests that instead of saying something is Fair Use, creators should avoid saying anything, or use the terms “attributed” or “noncommercial” - even though those don’t determine whether something is Fair Use. A work that’s attributed or noncommercial can still infringe on another’s copyright, and an unattributed and commercial use can be fair. The question isn't attribution - it's whether permission is required and if so, obtained. Fair Use exists where permission isn't necessary, so whether you ask for it or not is irrelevant. This isn't to say that creators shouldn't identify their works as attributed or noncommercial--only that those notes won't make a use fair, and skipping them won't make a use infringing.

    Noting that a work is, or even might be, Fair Use also doesn’t really have an impact on a court’s determining whether it is or isn’t. But that isn't the point, because a court isn't the only audience for a work. The internet isn’t a court of law; it is a court of public opinion. Including an author’s note or artist’s comment that a fic or painting or vid or film is Fair Use lets other people know what Fair Use is. As the US Copyright Office says, it can happen where “the reproduction of a particular work may be considered fair, such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, and research.”

    Sounds like fannish creativity, doesn’t it?

    As we say in the OTW FAQ: Fair use is the right to make some use of copyrighted material without getting permission or paying. It is a basic limit on copyright law that protects free expression. "Fair use" is an American phrase, although all copyright laws have some limits that keep copyright from being private censorship.

    Fair use favors uses that (1) are noncommercial and not sold for a profit; (2) are transformative, adding new meaning and messages to the original; (3) are limited, not copying the entirety of the original; and (4) do not substitute for the original work. None of these factors is absolutely necessary for fair use, but they all help, and we believe that fanworks like those available through the AO3 easily qualify as fair uses based on all these factors.

  • USPTO/NTIA multi-stakeholder forum on the DMCA

    By Claudia Rebaza on vendredi, 23 May 2014 - 3:34pm
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    Banner by Erin of a spotlight on an OTW logo with the words 'Spotlight on Legal Issues'

    OTW's Legal Committee made another appearance at a U.S. Patent and Trademark Office event, this one at a multistakeholder forum in Berkeley, California on May 8. Legal Chair Betsy Rosenblatt spoke about protecting transformative creators, whose voices might easily be lost or ignored in a discussion focusing on anti-piracy. Stating that small entities have unique concerns regarding standard processes, especially when they are volunteer-run such as the OTW, Betsy also mentioned the importance of pseudonymity. Her segment begins at 5:12 in the Part 2 video. (No transcript available). Other participants included copyright stalwarts like the RIAA, MPAA, and Copyright Alliance; internet freedom and free expression advocates like the EFF and New Media Rights; and content hosts ranging in size from Google on the large side to DeviantART on the small side.

    The meeting was designed to get participants’ views about benefits, drawbacks, and strategies for standardizing the DMCA notice-and-takedown procedure. The USPTO/NTIA representatives emphasized that this is not a lawmaking endeavor (nor could it be, since those bodies have no influence on copyright legislation), but rather an attempt to make current laws operate better than they currently do.

    The meeting resulted in the formation of a working group. The OTW has a seat on that working group, and will continue to voice the interests of transformative creators and small service providers throughout the process. It's not yet clear what the result of the process will be. Possibilities may include a set of “best practices”; a set of plug & play tools for rights-claimants and ISPs to use and adopt as they wish; or educational tools.

    Because the OTW will be an official part of the working group process, this is an opportunity for OTW members' voices to be heard. What would you like to see become a more standard part of the notice-and-takedown procedure? What would you want the procedure avoid? Let us know!

  • TWC's Top 10

    By Claudia Rebaza on jeudi, 8 May 2014 - 5:00pm
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    Partial view of the TWC word cloud

    One of the OTW's projects is Transformative Works and Cultures (TWC), an open-access academic journal dedicated to fandom and fandom studies.

    But don't think that just because it's a peer-reviewed, scholarly quarterly with a bibliographic listing in the MLA bibliography of journals that the contents of TWC aren't for fans like you to enjoy!  Check out this sampling, ranked by number of DOI resolutions:

    1) "Why we should talk about commodifying fan work", by Nele Noppe. How would legalizing fanwork influence the question: should fan work be free?

    2) "Book Review: Boys' love manga: Essays on the sexual ambiguity and cross-cultural fandom of the genre"by Nele Noppe. "The focus of the book remains squarely on the fans of boys' love manga, which makes it relevant to anyone interested in fan studies."

    3) "Women, "Star Trek," and the early development of fannish vidding", by Francesca Coppa. This paper discusses how early female Star Trek fans structured the practices and aesthetics of vidding, in order to heal the wounds created by the displacement and fragmentation of women on television.

    4) "'The epic love story of Sam and Dean': 'Supernatural,' queer readings, and the romance of incestuous fan fiction," by Catherine Tosenberger. Tosenberger examines the literary, cultural, and folkloric discourses of incest and queerness as invoked by the show in order to argue that "Wincest" fan fiction is best understood not as a perverse, oppositional reading of a manly dudebro show, but as an expression of readings that are suggested and supported by the text itself.

    5) "Endless loop: A brief history of chiptunes", by Kevin Driscoll and Joshua Diaz. Driscoll and Diaz explore the confusion surrounding what chiptunes is, and how the production and performance of music connected to 80's electronic video game soundtracks "tells an alternate narrative about the hardware, software, and social practices of personal computing in the 1980s and 1990s."

    6) "Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay", by Nicolle Lamerichs. Lamerichs argues that "costuming is a form of fan appropriation that transforms, performs, and actualizes an existing story in close connection to the fan's own identity," and that "cosplay motivates fans to closely interpret existing texts, perform them, and extend them with their own narratives and ideas."

    7) "Repackaging fan culture", by Suzanne Scott. Scott argues that "the strategic definition of fandom as a gift economy serves as a defensive front to impede encroaching industrial factions" like FanLib and Kindle Worlds, and examines "the Seinfeldian roots" of the social taboo of "regifting," relative to fan culture.

    8) "Thirty political video mashups made between World War II and 2005", by Jonathan McIntosh. The creator of the famed Buffy vs. Edward remix vid explores subversive pre-YouTube remixes.

    9) "Book review: Spreadable media: Creating value and meaning in a networked culture, by Henry Jenkins, Sam Ford, and Joshua Green", by Melissa A. Click. "Readers with stakes in the tug-of-war between fans and industry will likely enjoy, and be invigorated by, the authors' arguments about spreadability."

    10) "The Web planet: How the changing Internet divided "Doctor Who" fan fiction writers", by Leora Hadas. Hadas explores how evolving participatory culture clashed with traditional fandom modes and came to a head over one Whovian fanfic archive, using the conflict there to argue that "the cultural logics of fandom and of participatory culture might be more separate than they initially appear."

    And if you want to move beyond the Top 10 articles on TWC, here's a word cloud of the most frequently used words taken from the titles of every article that TWC has published in its 6-year history.

    Would you like to help us generate even more words? Head over to Fanhackers to see how you can celebrate acafandom, meta, and more with us—or check out the TWC Submissions Guidelines for submitting your research or essay to the journal!

  • Spotlight on Open Doors: Scales of Justice

    By Claudia Rebaza on samedi, 3 May 2014 - 4:40pm
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    Image of Scales of Jutice's cover

    First, a reminder that Open Doors will be holding the second of two public chats on Campfire (the online chat platform the OTW uses) for Yuletide participants on May 4, 1am UTC (what time is that in my timezone?).

    Open Doors would like to thank everyone for coming to the last chat, hanging out, and asking questions! We have a few updates we would like to share:

    • Comment notifications will be turned OFF for all works affected by the Yuletide import. That means if we are importing comments for your works, you will NOT receive an e-mail notification for them. (There will still be e-mail notifications for newly-imported works themselves.)
    • Comments will be imported as backdated comments on the imported work, and will be signed but not linked to an AO3 account.
    • If you have already imported your works to the AO3 and we match its original Yuletide URLs to its AO3 URLs before the import takes places, those works will automatically be added to the appropriate Yuletide subcollection, so you will not need to do this. This will also prevent duplicates of the works from being imported, import comments from the original Yuletide archive onto the work you uploaded yourself, and ensure that the redirect leads to the correct story once the import takes place.

    As a note, if you would like us to match your Yuletide URLs, please contact us before May 11, with the following information:

    Work Title:

    YuletideTreasure.org URL:

    AO3 URL:

    With that settled, today we're focusing on Scales of Justice, a famous Starsky & Hutch zine dating from 1985. It featured original ink drawings, silk screen prints, and intricate calligraphy, and is considered, according to Fanlore, "one of the most beautiful fanzines ever created."

    Silkscreen image from Scales of Jutice of Starsky's head in a puzzle piece and Hutch falling back into a wind tunnel

    As part of Open Doors' Fan Culture Preservation Project, a copy of Scales of Justice will be permanently preserved as part of the University of Iowa's Special Collections.

    Open Doors chair Michelle Dong notes: "I got to hold a copy in my hands, once. The art was lovely, and the colors still bright."

    Inkwork image from Scales of Jutice of Hutch in a feathered cape and Starsky with his hand covering his face. Both of them are inside a giant eye whose iris edge has a row of runes ending in a dragon's head.

    If you swoon the way we do over the possibility of being able to preserve and protect parts of our historical fan heritage and culture like Scales of Justice, please consider becoming a member of the OTW. Your support directly contributes to the continued existence of fanworks like Scales of Justice.

  • OTW ile İrtibatta Kalmak

    By Priscilla Del Cima on dimanche, 27 April 2014 - 3:25pm
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    Banner by Diane with the outlines of a man and woman speaking with word bubbles, one of which has the OTW logo and the other which says 'OTW Announcement'

    Nisan kampanyamızda bağışlardaki artışla birlikte OTW üyesi olarak aramıza yeni katılanlar da oldu! Bu yüzden biz de OTW ile nasıl irtibatta kalacağınız konusunda - hem bizimle direkt iletişime geçmek hem de OTW ve projeleri hakkında haber almak için - sizlere güncel bilgi vermek istedik.

    Resmi ve Resmi Olmayan Hesaplar

    Çoğu kişi OTW haberlerini sosyal medya hesapları veya RSS okuyucular aracılığıyla takip etmeyi seçiyor. Bu iki seçenek arasında bazı önemli farklar var. Bu farklar hangi haberleri alacağınızı ve bize ne şekilde ulaşacağınızı etkileyebilir.

    Biz tüm aktif hesaplarımızı transformativeworks.org adresindeki OTW ana sayfasında listeliyoruz. Ancak bazen hayranlar bizim kullandığımız platformlarda kendi RSS beslemelerini, hatta resmi olmayan hesaplarını oluşturmuş olabiliyor. Bu hesapların bazıları resmi olmadığını açıkça belirtiyor, bazısı belirtmeyebiliyor, ama genelde onları yöneten birileri oluyor. Diğer taraftan, RSS beslemeler televizyon yayınına benziyor -- otomatik yayın oldukları için onlara sadece geçici olarak erişebiliyorsunuz ve bize bu hesaplar üzerinden ulaşmanız mümkün olmuyor.

    Resmi hesaplardaki yayınlar ise İletişim Komitesi tarafından tek tek gönderiliyor. Bu hesaplar üzerinden OTW'ye yöneltilen yorum ve sorular bize ulaşıyor. Şüphe halinde takip ettiğiniz hesapla yukarıdaki linkte listelenen hesapları karşılaştırın. O hesaplardan birini takip etmiyorsanız, resmi bir hesabı takip etmiyorsunuz demektir.

    Bizimle İrtibata Geçmek

    Bizimle irtibata geçmek istiyorsanız Bize Ulaşın sayfamızı da kullanabilirsiniz. Sorunuzu kime yöneltmeniz gerektiğine emin değilseniz İletişim Komitesi'ni deneyin. Sorunuzu cevaplayamazsak mesajınızı size yardımcı olabilecek ilgili OTW bölümüne aktarabiliriz.

    OTW'ye belirtilen dillerin hepsini kullanarak ulaşabilirsiniz: Arapça, Katalanca, Çince, Flemenkçe, İngilizce, Fince, Fransızca, Almanca, Macarca, Endonezce, İtalyanca, Korece, Lehçe, Portekizce, İspanyolca, Svahili, İsveççe, Türkçe.

    Bilgiye Ulaşmak

    RSS besleme hesaplarının bir diğer kötü yönü de gönderilerin kısa süreli olması nedeniyle arama yapılamaması. OTW'nin eski haber gönderilerine ulaşmak isterseniz ana sayfamızı ziyaret ederek sağ üst köşedeki arama kutusunu kullanabilirsiniz.

    Ayrıca, OTW Pinboard hesabımızda OTW Haber'de yayınlanan tüm gönderilerimiz ile Fanhackers ve AO3 haberlerinin etiketlenmiş ve aramaya uygun yer imlerini bulabilirsiniz. Sitenin yalın formatı sayesinde bir proje hakkındaki tüm haberler veya bir komite tarafından yayınlanmış tüm gönderiler gibi, belli bir etiketin altındaki herşeyi kolayca gözden geçirebiliyorsunuz.

    Hesaplarımıza Erişim

    Gerek sosyal medya hesaplarımıza gerekse de OTW sitesinin kendisine zaman zaman erişimin engellendiğinin farkındayız. Birden fazla alanda resmi hesabımız bulunmasının sebeplerinden biri de bu.

    Çoğu kişi için bu yasaklar okul veya işyerinden kaynaklı lokal engeller olmakla birlikte, Çin'in güvenlik duvarları Facebook, Twitter ve Google alanlarını tamamen engelleyip, bunların yerine yerel sosyal ağları olan Renren, Weibo ve arama motoru Baidu'ya yönlendiriyor. 2012 yılında Rusya yanlışlıkla LiveJournal'ın IP adresini engelleyerek sitenin tamamını sansürlemişti. Türkiye ve Vietnam gibi birçok diğer ülke çeşitli sosyal medya ve siteleri engelliyor. Bazen güvenlik duvarları sitelerin tamamına erişimi kapatmaktansa belli konu ve kelimelerin filtrelenmesine izin verebiliyor.

    Bir platformda bizi takip edemiyorsanız, diğer sitelerimizden birine ulaşabilmenizi ümit ediyoruz. Hayranlara daha kolay ulaşabilmek için resmi hesap açabileceğimiz ek lokasyon arayışımız her zaman devam ediyor. Bu konuda sizin önerilerinize de açığız. Şu anki görevli sayımız ve iş yükümüz yakın gelecekte büyümemize izin vermese de, uzun vadeli planlarımızda sizin önerilerinizi değerlendirebiliriz.

    Bizi tanıtın!

    Geçtiğimiz günlerde tanıtım görsellerimiz ve OTW'yi tanıtmak için kullanılabilecek farklı yöntemlerle ilgili bazı sorular aldık. Bu bilgilere sitemizin "Nasıl yardım edebilirsiniz" bölümünden ulaşabilirsiniz. Mevcut materyalleri gözden geçirip eklemeler yapmak istiyoruz, o yüzden içerikle ilgili öneriniz veya belli ölçüler vb. talepleriniz varsa lütfen bizi bilgilendirin!

    Ve unutmayın! OTW videosunu da paylaşabilirsiniz!

     

  • Så håller du kontakten med OTW

    By Priscilla Del Cima on dimanche, 27 April 2014 - 3:24pm
    Message type:

     

    Banner by Diane with the outlines of a man and woman speaking with word bubbles, one of which has the OTW logo and the other which says 'OTW Announcement'

    Tillsammans med de ökande donationerna som OTW fick in under vår kampanj i april fick vi också nya medlemmar till OTW!

    I och med detta ville vi upplysa om hur man kan hålla kontakten med OTW; vare sig det gäller sätt att kontakta oss direkt eller bara för att hålla koll på dom senaste nyheterna inom OTW och dess projekt.

    Officiella vs. inofficiella konton

    Många väljer att prenumerera på nyheter från OTW genom sina konton på sociala medier eller genom RSS-läsare. Det finns dock en del viktiga skillnader mellan dessa, skillnader som kan påverka både nyheterna du mottar samt sätten för hur du kan kontakta oss.

    Vi listar alla våra aktiva konton på OTW:s hemsida transformativeworks.org men det händer att fans skapar feeds, eller till och med inofficiella konton, på samma plattformar som vi använder. Inofficiella konton klargör detta ibland och ibland gör de det inte, men de har generellt sett någon som styr dom. Å andra sidan är feeds som TV-sändningar -- de automatiseras, informationen finns bara uppe temporärt och du kan inte kontakta oss genom dessa konton.

    Officiella konton styrs individuellt av kommittén för Kommunikation och vi tar emot kommentarer och frågor till OTW som skickas in genom dessa konton. Om det dyker upp några tveksamheter, jämför kontot du följer med de konton som listas vid länken ovan. Om det du prenumererar på inte är ett av dem så är kontot du följer inte officiellt.

    Kontakta oss

    Om du vill nå oss kan du också använda sidan som heter Kontakta oss. Om du inte är säker på vem du ska rikta din fråga till så försök med Kommunikation. På så vis, om vi inte har svaret, kan vi skicka ditt meddelande vidare till en OTW-sektion som kan hjälpa dig.

    OTW kan kontaktas på följande språk:
    arabiska, katalanska, kinesiska, holländska, engelska, finska, franska, tyska, ungerska, indonesiska, italienska, koreanska, polska, portugisiska, spanska, swahili, svenska och turkiska.

    Hitta information

    En annan nackdel med RSS-konton är att eftersom inlägg bara syns där en kort tid är de inte sökbara. Om du vill hitta tidigare nyheter från OTW kan du besöka vår hemsida och använda sökrutan högst upp till höger.

    Ett annat alternativ är OTWs Pinboard-konto som erbjuder taggade, sökbara bokmärken till alla våra nyhetsbrev och inlägg på OTW Nyheter, såväl som inlägg från Fanhackers och senaste nyheterna från AO3. Sidans korta format tillåter dig att lätt söka igenom allting under en viss tagg, som till exempel alla nyheter från ett visst projekt eller allt som lagts ut av en viss kommitté.

    Tillgång till våra konton

    Vi är medvetna om att folk ofta är blockerade från att komma åt våra sidor, vare sig det är ett konto på sociala medier eller själva OTW-sidan. Det är en av anledningarna till att vi har officiella konton på flera olika ställen.

    För många kan dessa restriktioner bero på lokala spärrar på en skola eller arbetsplats, men Kinas brandväggar spärrar Facebook, Twitter och Google för att i stället använda landets egna sociala nätverk Renren, Weibo och sökmotorn Baido. 2012 censurerade Ryssland av misstag hela LiveJournal genom att blockera IP-adressen till LJ. Flera andra länder, som Turkiet och Vietnam, spärrar något socialt medium eller någon domän. I vissa fall tillåter dock brandväggar filtrering av specifika ämnen och ord, snarare än att nödvändigtvis spärra hela webbsidor.

    Om du inte kan följa oss på en viss plattform så är förhoppningsvis någon annan av våra sidor tillgänglig för dig. Vi undersöker alltid ytterligare platser för officiella konton för att så långt som det är möjligt kunna nå fans och du får gärna skicka oss förslag. Vår bemanning eller arbetsbörda kan ibland hindra oss att expandera inom den närmaste framtiden, men vi kommer att hålla önskemål i åtanke som en del av vår långsiktiga planering.

    Gör PR för oss!

    Vi har fått en del frågor på sista tiden om PR-grafik och andra sätt att marknadsföra OTW. Du kan hitta dessa under vår sektion på hemsidan som heter ”Hur du kan hjälpa till”. Vi vill gärna uppdatera och lägga till nytt där, så om du har några idéer om innehåll du vill ha tillgång till, särskilda storlekar osv. så får du gärna säga till oss!

    Och glöm inte att du alltid kan dela vidare OTW-videon också!

  • Bądź na bieżąco z OTW

    By Priscilla Del Cima on dimanche, 27 April 2014 - 3:23pm
    Message type:

     

    Banner by Diane with the outlines of a man and woman speaking with word bubbles, one of which has the OTW logo and the other which says 'OTW Announcement'

    Razem ze wzrostem liczby datków, które OTW otrzymało podczas Kwietniowej Promocji Członkowstwa, przybyło również nowych członków OTW! W wyniku tego chcieliśmy dokonać aktualizacji sposobów, w jakie możesz się z nami skontaktować - w sprawach indywidualnych bądź w celu bycia na bieżąco z projektami OTW lub całą organizacją.

    Oficjalne vs. Nieoficjalne Konta

    Wiele osób otrzymuje wiadomości z OTW poprzez konta na portalach społecznościowych oraz czytniki kanałów. Istnieją jednak ważne różnice pomiędzy tymi opcjami, które mogą wpływać na otrzymywanie newsów i kontakt z nami.

    Wszystkie nasze konta wymienione są na stronie domowej OTW na transformativeworks.org. Czasami jednak fani tworzą kanały, lub nawet nieoficjalne konta, na tych samych platformach, których używamy. Konta nieoficjalne określają swój status bądź nie, lecz w większości przypadków posiadają osobę, która nimi zarządza. Jeśli chodzi natomiast o kanały, to są one jak przekazy telewizyjne -- zautomatyzowane, informacje widać jedynie tymczasowo i nie możesz się przez nie z nami skontaktować.

    Posty na oficjalnych kontach są tworzone przez Communications Committee (Komisję Komunikacji), a my otrzymujemy komentarze i pytania wysyłane do OTW przez te konta. Jeśli masz więc wątpliwości, porównaj proszę konto, które śledzisz, z kontami wymienionymi w linku powyżej. Jeśli nie jesteś subskrybentem jednego z nich, nie śledzisz oficjalnego konta.

    Kontakt z Nami

    Jeśli chcesz się z nami skontaktować, możesz również użyć strony Kontakt. Jeśli masz wątpliwości do kogo skierować swoje pytanie, wybierz Communications (Komunikację). Jeśli nie znamy odpowiedzi na Twoje pytanie, prześlemy je do sekcji OTW, która będzie w stanie Ci pomóc.

    Z OTW możesz kontaktować się w następujących językach: arabskim, katalońskim, chińskim, holenderskim, angielskim, fińskim, francuskim, niemieckim, węgierskim, indonezyjskim, włoskim, koreańskim, polskim, portugalskim, hiszpańskim, swahili, szwedzkim, tureckim.

    Znajdowanie Informacji

    Kolejną wadą czytników kanałów jest to, że z powodu krótkiego czasu wyświetlania postów są one niemożliwe do wyszukania. Jeśli chcesz znaleźć poprzednie newsy OTW, możesz odwiedzić naszą stronę domową i użyć wyszukiwarki w prawym górnym rogu.

    Dla porównania, nasze konto OTW Pinboard zapewnia otagowane, łatwe do wyszukania zakładki dla wszystkich newsów i publikacji na OTW News, jak również na Fanhackers, oraz dla nowszych postów na AO3. Zwięzły format strony pozwala na szybkie przejrzenie pożądanego tagu, takiego jak np. newsy z konkretnego projektu lub wszystko wydane przez konkretną komisję.

    Dostęp do Naszych Kont

    Jesteśmy świadomi, że dostęp do naszych kont na portalach społecznościowych, a nawet do samej strony OTW, jest często niemożliwy. Jest to jeden z powodów dla których utrzymujemy oficjalne konta na różnych serwisach.

    Wiele tych ograniczeń może być spowodowanych lokalnymi blokadami nakładanymi przez szkoły czy firmy. Chiński firewall blokuje domeny Facebooka, Twittera i Googli na rzecz macierzystych portali społecznościowych, takich jak Renren, Weibo i wyszukiwarki Baidu. W 2012 roku Rosja przez przypadek ocenzurowała cały LiveJournal poprzez zablokowanie jego adresów IP. Różne kraje, takie jak np. Turcja czy Wietnam, blokują różne domeny i portale. Czasami jednak firewall pozwala na filtrowanie konkretnych tematów i słów zamiast uniemożliwiania dostępu do całej strony.

    Jeśli nie jesteś w stanie śledzić nas na jednej platformie, mamy nadzieję, że pozostałe będą dla Ciebie dostępne. Cały czas badamy możliwości tworzenia nowych oficjalnych kont w celu jak najlepszego dotarcia do fanów. Czekamy na wasze sugestie. Mimo, że obecna liczba pracowników i natłok pracy mogą hamować nasz rozwój, uwzględnimy wasze prośby w długoterminowych planach.

    Promowanie!

    Otrzymaliśmy ostatnio kilka pytań na temat grafik i innych sposobów na promowanie OTW. Możesz je znaleźć w sekcji "Jak pomóc" naszej strony. Chcemy ją rozszerzyć, jak również usłyszeć Twoją opinię. Jeśli masz więc jakieś pomysły co do treści, które powinny być dostępne, konkretnych rozmiarów itp., daj nam znać!

    Nie zapomnij, że możesz też udostępnić video o OTW!

     

  • Restare in contatto con OTW

    By Priscilla Del Cima on dimanche, 27 April 2014 - 3:22pm
    Message type:

     

    Banner by Diane with the outlines of a man and woman speaking with word bubbles, one of which has the OTW logo and the other which says 'OTW Announcement'

    Oltre all'aumento di donazioni che OTW ha ricevuto durante la nostra Chiamata alle Iscrizioni di Aprile, abbiamo registrato anche un aumento dei membri di OTW! Per questo motivo, volevamo aggiornarti sulle modalità con cui restare in contatto con OTW, che tu abbia bisogno di contattarci direttamente o soltanto per essere aggiornato su OTW in generale o su uno dei suoi progetti.

    Account ufficiali e non ufficiali

    Molte persone scelgono di iscriversi agli aggiornamenti di OTW attraverso i loro account social o attraverso i lettori di feed. Ci sono tuttavia alcune importanti differenze nel caso di una scelta piuttosto che l'altra, che possono influenzare sia le notizie che ricevete, sia le modalità di contatto.

    Abbiamo una lista di tutti gli account attivi sulla homepage di OTW, transformativeworks.org. Tuttavia, a volte i fan hanno creato dei feed o anche account non ufficiali sulle stesse piattaforme che usiamo noi. Gli account non ufficiali a volte esplicitano chiaramente di esserlo, a volte no, ma comunque c'è sempre qualcuno a gestirli. D'altro canto, i feed sono come trasmissioni televisive: sono automatizzati, le informazioni restano lì per un tempo limitato, e non puoi contattarci attraverso di essi.

    Gli account ufficiali sono gestiti direttamente dal Comitato Comunicazioni, e riceviamo commenti e domande per OTW attraverso quegli account. Per questo motivo se hai dei dubbi, controlla gli account che stai seguendo e confrontali con quelli della lista che abbiamo pubblicato più sopra. Se non sei iscritto agli aggiornamenti di uno di questi ultimi, allora non stai seguendo un account ufficiale.

    Contattaci

    Se vuoi contattarci, puoi anche usare la nostra pagina Contattaci. Se sei indeciso sul destinatario della tua domanda, prova con Comunicazioni, e se non abbiamo una risposta per te possiamo mandare il tuo messaggio alla sezione di OTW che può aiutarti.

    Puoi scrivere a OTW in tutte le lingue qui di seguito: Arabo, Catalano, Cinese, Coreano, Finlandese, Francese, Indonesiano, Inglese, Italiano, Olandese, Polacco, Portoghese, Spagnolo, Svedese, Swahili, Tedesco, Turco, Ungherese.

    Ricercare informazioni

    Un altro svantaggio dei feed è che a causa del periodo limitato di tempo in cui le informazioni sono disponibili, questi non sono indicizzati. Se vuoi cercare gli aggiornamenti precedenti di OTW, puoi visitare la nostra homepage e usare la casella di ricerca in alto a destra.

    In alternativa, il nostro account OTW Pinboard fornisce bookmark taggati e indicizzati a tutti i nostri aggiornamenti e alle notizie da OTW, nonché a quelli di Fanhackers e alle ultime notizie da AO3. Il formato ridotto del sito ti permette di cercare qualsiasi notizia elencata sotto una particolare tag, così come tutte le notizie riguardanti un progetto in particolare o provenienti da uno specifico Comitato.

    Accesso ai nostri account

    Siamo consapevoli che spesso le persone non possono accedere ai nostri siti, che siano i nostri account sui social o lo stesso sito di OTW. Questo è uno dei motivi per cui gestiamo account ufficiali su piattaforme diverse.

    Mentre molte di queste restrizioni riguardano blocchi locali gestiti per esempio da scuole e luoghi di lavoro, i firewall in Cina bloccano i domini di Facebook, Twitter e Google, in favore dei social network locali Renren, Weibo e del motore di ricerca Baidu. Nel 2012, la Russia ha accidentamente censurato l'intero network LiveJournal bloccando l'indirizzo IP di LJ. Alcuni altri Stati hanno bloccato uno o più social o domini, come la Turchia o il Vietnam. Tuttavia, a volte i firewall permettono di filtrare specifici argomenti o parole, anziché necessariamente bloccare interi siti.

    Se non ti è possibile seguirci su una piattaforma, è ragionevole sperare che un altro dei nostri siti sia disponibile. Esaminiamo continuamente piattaforme aggiuntive per account ufficiali per raggiungere al meglio i fan, e accettiamo volentieri suggerimenti da parte tua. Anche se al momento lo staff o i carichi di lavoro possono sconsigliarci ulteriori espansioni nel prossimo futuro, terremo conto delle richieste di tutti come parte di un progetto a più lungo termine.

    Facci pubblicità!

    Abbiamo avuto di recente alcune domande che ci richiedevano grafiche promozionali o altri modi per promuovere OTW. Puoi trovare le grafiche nella sezione "Collabora con noi" sul nostro sito. Siamo lieti di rivedere e aggiungere nuovi contenuti a questa sezione, perciò se hai idee su contenuti che vorresti fossero disponibili, o nuove grandezze per le grafiche, o altro ancora, faccelo sapere!

    E non dimenticare che puoi sempre condividere il nostro video su OTW!

     

  • Tetap Terhubung dengan OTW

    By Priscilla Del Cima on dimanche, 27 April 2014 - 3:21pm
    Message type:

     

    Banner by Diane with the outlines of a man and woman speaking with word bubbles, one of which has the OTW logo and the other which says 'OTW Announcement'

    Sehubungan dengan naiknya jumlah donasi yang diterima OTW pada penggalangan keanggotaan April lalu, kami juga menerima banyak anggota baru di OTW! Karenanya, kami ingin memberi pembaruan tentang cara-cara untuk tetap terhubung dengan OTW, baik untuk menghubungi kami secara langsung, atau sekedar mengetahui kabar terbaru dari OTW atau proyek-proyeknya.

    Akun Resmi vs. Tidak Resmi

    Banyak orang memilih untuk berlangganan berita tentang OTW melalui akun sosial media atau pembaca umpan mereka. Namun demikian, ada beberapa perbedaan yang terkait dengan pilihan-pilihan tersebut, yang mungkin memengaruhi berita yang anda terima dan bagaimana anda bisa terhubung dengan kami.

    Kami membuat daftar akun-akun aktif kami pada laman depan OTW di transformativeworks.org. Namun, terkadang penggemar membuat umpan atau akun-akun tak resmi pada situs yang sama dengan yang kami gunakan. Akun tak resmi kadang menjelaskan bahwa mereka adalah akun tak resmi, dan kadang tidak ada penjelasan, namun umumnya akun-akun tersebut dijalankan oleh seseorang. Di lain pihak, umpan bersifat seperti tayangan televisi -- mereka bekerja secara otomatis, informasinya hanya tersedia sementara, dan anda tidak dapat menghubungi kami melalui akun tersebut.

    Kami mengirim post pada akun resmi melalui komite Komunikasi, dan kami menerima komentar serta pertanyaan yang dikirim ke OTW melalui akun-akun tersebut. Jadi, jika anda ragu, sila periksa akun-akun yang anda ikuti dan bandingkan dengan akun yang terdaftar pada tautan di atas. Jika anda tidak mengikuti akun-akun pada daftar tersebut, anda tidak mengikuti akun resmi kami.

    Menghubungi Kami

    Jika anda ingin menghubungi kami, anda juga dapat menggunakan borang Hubungi Kami. Jika anda tidak yakin kepada siapa pertanyaan anda harus diajukan, cobalah melayangkannya kepada komite Komunikasi, dan jika kami tidak dapat menjawabnya, kami akan meneruskan pesan anda kepada bagian OTW yang dapat membantu anda.

    OTW dapat dihubungi dalam bahasa berikut ini: Arab, Catalan, Cina, Belanda, Inggris, Finlandia, Perancis, Jerman, Hungaria, Indonesia, Italia, Korea, Polandia, Portugis, Spanyol, Swahili, Swedia, dan Turki.

    Menemukan Informasi

    Kelemahan lain akun umpan adalah karena terbatasnya waktu kemunculan post pada akun tersebut, post-post tersebut tidak dapat ditemukan di situ. Jika anda ingin menemukan post berita terdahulu dari OTW, sila kunjungi situs kami dan gunakan kotak pencarian di bagian kanan atas.

    Sebagai alternatif, akun Pinboard milik OTW menyediakan tanda buku yang telah ditandai dan dapat dicari pada seluruh rilis berita dan post pada berita OTW, juga dari Fanhackers dan berita-berita terbaru dari AO3. Format singkat dari situs tersebut memungkinkan anda untuk memindai apapun dalam sebuah tanda dengan mudah, seperti seluruh berita dari proyek atau komite tertentu.

    Akses ke Akun-akun Kami

    Kami menyadari bahwa seringkali blokir pada situs-situs kami menyebabkan banyak orang kesulitan mengakses situs-situs kami, baik akun media sosial atau situs web OTW sendiri. Ini adalah salah satu alasan mengapa kami mempunyai akun-akun resmi di beberapa lokasi.

    Meskipun bagi beberapa orang blokiran ini mungkin disebabkan oleh blokiran lokal yang dilakukan oleh sekolah atau perusahaan, firewall yang diterapkan di seluruh Cina memblokir seluruh domain Facebook, Twitter dan Google, untuk mendukung jaringan sosial lokal mereka, seperti Renren, Weibo, dan mesin pencarian Baidu. Pada tahun 2012, Rusia secara tidak sengaja menyensor seluruh LiveJournal dengan memblokir alamat IP LJ. Banyak negara lainnya memblokir satu atau lebih situs atau domain jejaring sosial, seperti Turki atau Vietnam. Namun demikian, terkadang firewall hanya memblok topik dan kata kunci tertentu, alih-alih melarang akses pada seluruh situs.

    Jika anda tidak dapat mengikuti kami dalam sebuah platform, kami berharap satu dari situs kami yang lain terjangkau oleh anda. Kami selalu mencari lokasi tambahan untuk akun resmi demi menjangkau lebih banyak penggemar, dan anda dapat mengirim saran kepada kami. Meskipun keterbatasan staf dan banyaknya pekerjaan kami saat ini menjadi penghalang ekspansi kami dalam waktu dekat, kami akan mempertimbangkan saran-saran tersebut sebagai bagian dari perencanaan jangka panjang.

    Mempromosikan Kami!

    Baru-baru ini, kami telah mendapatkan beberapa pertanyaan mengenai gambar-gambar promosi dan cara-cara lain untuk mempromosikan OTW. Anda dapat menemukan hal-hal tersebut di bagian “Cara Membantu” (”How to help") di situs web kami. Kami juga ingin membahas dan menambahkan isi dari bagian tersebut, jadi jika anda mempunyai ide mengenai konten yang anda inginkan untuk tersedia, ukuran-ukuran tertentu, dll., beri tahu kami!

    Dan jangan lupa, anda juga selalu dapat membagikan video OTW!

     

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