Legal Advocacy

  • Campanha de Abril da OTW: Foco no Jurídico

    By Priscilla Del Cima on Domenica, 6 April 2014 - 5:58pm
    Message type:

     

    Construindo Caminhos – Organização para Obras Transformativas – Campanha de Abril – 3-9 de abril de 2014

    Se você já sofreu o impacto de uma notificação formal de retirada, você sabe que detentores de direitos autorais nem sempre agem da forma correta, nem reconhecem a legitimidade e o valor da atividade de fãs. É por isso que o time de Assistência Jurídica da OTW está de plantão para defender o fandom e a importância da doutrina de “fair use” (uso razoável) e de obras transformativas.

    Quando não estão ajudando fãs a lutar contra plágio e exploração corporativas, contra notificações judiciais e extrajudiciais de retirada, o Jurídico trabalha com uma perspectiva mais ampla. Quando governos analisam questões de “fair use” (uso razoável) e direitos autorais, o comitê Jurídico da OTW está lá, agindo em favor dos direitos de fãs e em prol da criatividade dos fãs.

    Segue uma linha do tempo listando os esforços recentes da equipe Jurídica em defesa de obras transformativas (como obras de fãs!) no direito autoral:

    • Em 2013, o Jurídico apresentou pareceres amicus curiae nos processos Fox v. DISH e Dish v. ABC, defendendo que detentores de direitos autorais não têm controle absoluto sobre como suas obras são utilizadas: uma questão que, obviamente, é muito importante para nós como fãs, que criam e usufruem de obras de fãs.
    • Também em 2013, o Jurídico apresentou um parecer amicus curiae no caso Lenz v. Universal sobre como alegações de copyright infundadas prejudicam o “fair use” (uso razoável). Essa questão é particularmente importante no que concerne o abuso de notificações com base no DMCA (Digital Millennium Copyright Act) por parte de detentores de direitos autorais americanos.
    • Em dezembro de 2013, Rebecca Tushnet, que trabalha no Jurídico da OTW, deu depoimento perante a Administração Nacional de Telecomunicações e Informação americana para defender o “fair use” (uso razoável) em obras transformativas.
    • Em fevereiro de 2014, o Jurídico enviou comentários à Comissão Europeia sobre uma possível reforma no direito autoral da UE, tentando ajudar a assegurar que o resultado final respeitará as obras transformativas.

    Nosso time jurídico dedica-se também a acompanhar notícias atuais que afetam o fandom: casos e causas que possam ter impacto nos seus direitos de criar e acessar obras de fãs. O time escreveu sobre direitos autorais no Canadá, sobre os debates da Parceria Trans-Pacífica (Trans-Pacific Partnership - TPP), sobre aspectos de direito chinês que afetam obras transformativas, e outros, ajudando a nos manter em dia com acontecimentos que possam ter um impacto no fandom.

    O time de voluntários pro bono do Jurídico da OTW quer ajudar o fandom a entender as leis que nos afetam, e a ajudar a lei a respeitar o que fazemos. E é claro, o time também tem o papel fundamental de prestar consultoria jurídica para a própria OTW, ajudando todos os nossos comitês e projetos com conselhos e assistência: o Jurídico é essencial para a existência e funcionamento da OTW.

    Por favor faça uma doação para ajudar nosso Jurídico a continuar trabalhando!

     

  • Campaña de membresía de Abril: enfoque en Legal

    By Priscilla Del Cima on Domenica, 6 April 2014 - 5:57pm
    Message type:

     

    Un paso más – Organización para las Obras Transformativas – Campaña de membresía – 3 a 9 de abril

    Si alguna vez has recibido una advertencia injusta sobre una infracción a los derechos de autor, sabes que los dueños de marcas y propietarios de derechos de utor no siempre son justos o reconocen la importancia y el valor que tiene la actividad de lxs fans. Es por ello que el equipo de Asistencia Legal de la OTW está listo para defender al fandom y la importancia del uso legítimo y las obras transformativas.

    Cuando no están ayudando en la lucha de lxs fans contra plagio y la explotación corporativa, Cese y Desista y esos inconvenientes bloqueos de obras en línea, el comité Legal trabaja con una perspectiva más amplia del problema. Cuando los gobiernos debaten el uso legítimo y derechos de autor, el Comité Legal de OTW esta ahí para defender los derechos de lxs fans y su creatividad.

    A continuación se presenta una línea temporal reciente de los trabajos del equipo de Asistencia Legal en donde discuten la protección de las obras transformativas (¡como las obras de fans!) en la ley de los Derechos de Autor:

    • En el 2013, el equipo Legal presentó un amicus curiae en Fox vs. DISH [NT: en inglés] y Dish vs. ABC [NT: en inglés], argumentando que los propietarios de Derechos de Autor no tienen poder absoluto sobre cómo se usan sus obras, un tema que obviamente es muy importante para nosotros como fans y como creadores y consumidores de obras de fans.
    • También en el 2013, el comité Legal presentó un amicus curiae enLenz vs. Universal [NT: en inglés] tratando el tema de cómo los alegatos infundados de infracciones de los derechos de autor dañan el uso legítimo de las obras transformativas. Este tema es especialmente importante cuando se trata del abuso de los derechos de autor dentro de las notificaciones de la DMCA (El Acta de Derechos de Autor Digitales del Milenio).
    • En diciembre de 2013 un miembro del personal de la OTW, Rebecca Tushnet, testificó ante los departamentos de Patentes y Marcas de EE.UU. y de Telecomunicaciones Nacionales e Información Administrativa de EE.UU., para defender el uso legítimo de las obras transformativas.
    • En febrero de 2014, el comité Legal presentó comentarios a la Comisión Europea [NT: en inglés] concernientes a las posibles reformas en la Ley de Derechos de Autor de EE.UU. con el fin de asegurar que los resultados finales respeten las obras transformativas.

    Los abogados del equipo de Asistencia Legal, a pesar de encontrarse muy ocupados, también siguen los eventos que afectan al fandom en general —causas y casos que podrían impactar tus derechos de creación y acceso a obras de fans.
    Han presentado publicaciones [NT: en inglés] que cubren las leyes Canadienses, el Acuerdo Estratégico Trans-Pacífico de Asociación Económica (TPP en inglés), leyes chinas respecto de las obras transformativas y otras, con el fin de mantenernos al día sobre eventos que puedan impactar en el fandom.

    Los voluntarixs del comité Legal de la OTW, enteramente pro bono, quieren ayudar al fandom a entender las leyes que nos afectan, y ayudar a la ley a respetar el trabajo que realizamos. Por supuesto, el comité Legal también cumple el importante papel de consultor legal en la OTW, aconsejando y asistiendo a todos nuestros comités y proyectos: son esenciales para mantener la OTW a flote.

    ¡Por favor, contribuye, para que continúe el excelente trabajo del comité de Asistencia Legal!

     

  • April månads Värvningskampanj: Fokus på det Juridiska

    By Priscilla Del Cima on Domenica, 6 April 2014 - 5:55pm
    Message type:

     

    Milstolpar – Organisationen för Transformativa Verk – Värvningskampanj – 3-9 april

    Om du någonsin känt smärtan av en orättvis anmälan om borttagning så vet du att upphovsrättsägare, varumärkesägare och andra rättighetsägare inte alltid är så snälla, eller erkänner legitimiteten och värdet i fan-aktivitet. Det är därför som OTWs team för Juridiska Rådgivning står i ständig beredskap att försvara fandom och betydelsen av rättvis användning och transformativa verk.

    När de inte hjälper fans att kämpa mot företag beträffande plagiering och utnyttjande, varningsbrev gällande upphovsrätten och de där irriterande borttagningarna, så jobbar det Juridiska teamet med helheten. När regeringar överväger rättvis användning och upphovsrättsfrågor så är OTWs Juridiska kommitté där och talar för fans rättigheter och kreativitet.

    Här är en färsk tidslinje över det Juridiska Rådgivningsteamets arbete i att förespråka beskyddande av transformativa verk (så som verk av fans!) inom upphovsrätts lag:

    • 2013, framlade Juridiska en amicus curiae till Fox v. DISH och Dish v. ABC, där de argumenterar att upphovsrättsägare inte har absolut kontroll över hur deras skapelser används, en fråga som naturligtvis ligger nära våra hjärtan som fans samt som skapare och konsumenter av verk av fans.
    • Också i 2013, framlade Juridiska en amicus curiae till Lenz v. Universal angående hur ogrundade anklagelser angående upphovsrättsintrång skadar rättvis användning. Denna fråga är speciellt viktig när det kommer till upphovrättsägarnas missbruk av DMCA anmälningar.
    • I USA i december 2013, vittnade OTWs personalansvariga Rebecca Tushnet inför US Patent and Trademark Office och US National Telecommunications and Information Administration i försvar för rättvis användning i transformativa verk.
    • I februari 2014, framlade Juridiska kommentarer till den Europeiska kommissionen gällande en möjlig EU upphovrätts reform, i försök att försäkra att slutresultatet visar respekt för transformativa verk.

    Juridisk Rådgivningens flitiga jurister håller även koll på aktuella händelser som påverkar fandoms i det stora hela — orsaker och ärenden som kan påverka dina rättigheter att skapa och ha tillgång till verk av fans. De har skrivit inlägg angående kanadensiska lagar, diskussioner om Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP), kinesisk lagar där det avser transformativa verk, samt andra, med avsikt att hålla oss uppdaterade om utvecklingar som kan komma att påverka fandom.

    OTWs, helt pro bono, Juridiska volontär team vill hjälpa fandoms att förstå lagarna som gäller oss, och hjälpa så att lagen respekterar det vi gör. Och givetvis så ansvarar teamet även för den viktiga rollen som juridiska rådgivare för hela OTW. De hjälper alla våra kommittéer och projekt med råd och assistans: de är absolut nödvändiga för att OTW ska kunna fungera effektivt.

    Snälla hjälp oss att hålla igång Juridiskas goda arbete!

     

  • Nisan Üyelik Kampanyası: Hukuk Komitesi'ne Bakış

    By Priscilla Del Cima on Domenica, 6 April 2014 - 5:53pm
    Message type:

     

    Adım Adım – Transformatif Eserler Derneği (OTW) – Üyelik Kampanyası – 3-9 Nisan

    Haksız bir kaldırma ihbarına maruz kalmanın acısını hissettiyseniz, telif, marka ve diğer hak sahiplerinin her zaman anlayışlı olmadığını, hayran aktivitelerinin değerini ve meşruiyetini tanımadığını bilirsiniz. Bu yüzden OTW'nin Yasal Müdafaa ekibi, fandomu, adil kullanımı ve transformatif eserleri savunmak için hazır bekler.

    Hukuk ekibi; kurumsal intihal ve sömürüye, durdurma emirlerine ve kaldırma ihbarlarına karşı mücadelede hayranlara yardımcı olmanın yanısıra, daha genel sorunlarla da ilgilenir. Devletler, adil kullanım ve telif hakkı sorunlarını değerlendirdiğinde, OTW'nin Hukuk Komitesi hayranların haklarını ve hayran yaratıcılığını savunmak için oradadır.

    Son dönemde Yasal Müdafaa ekibimizin telif hukukunda transformatif eserlerin (hayran eserleri gibi!) korunması gerekliliğini savunduğu bazı durumlar:

    • 2013'te Hukuk Komitesi Fox v. DISH ve Dish v. ABC davaları için bilirkişi raporları sunarak telif hakkı sahiplerinin, eserlerinin kullanımı ile ilgili mutlak kontrole sahip olmadığını savundu, ki bu da hayranlar ve hayran eserlerini yaratan ve tüketenler olarak bizim çok önemsediğimiz bir konuydu.
    • Yine 2013'te Hukuk Komitesi Lenz v. Universal davası için, asılsız telif hakkı ihlali iddialarının adil kullanım kavramına nasıl zarar verdiğini açıklayan bir bilirkişi raporu sundu. Bu konu özellikle telif hakkı sahiplerinin DMCA (Dijital Milenyum Telif Hakkı Yasası) ihbarlarını suistimali ile başa çıkmak için önemli.
    • Aralık 2013'te OTW görevlisi Rebecca Tushnet, ABD Patent ve Marka Ofisi ve ABD Ulusal Telekomünikasyon ve Enformasyon İdaresi huzurunda adil kullanım ve transformatif eserleri savunmak üzere ifade verdi.
    • Şubat 2014'te Hukuk Komitesi, Avrupa Komisyonu'na olası bir Avrupa Birliği telif reformu için görüş bildirerek transformatif eserlere saygıyla yaklaşan bir sonuca varılmasını sağlamaya çalıştı.

    Yasal Müdafaa'nın avukatları ayrıca fandomu etkileyebilecek güncel olayları—hayran eseri yaratma ve eserlere erişim haklarını etkileyebilecek durum ve davaları da takip eder. Geçtiğimiz dönemde Kanada hukuku, Trans-Pasifik Ortaklığı (TPP) görüşmeleri, Çin hukukunda transformatif eserler gibi birçok konuda yazılar yayınlayarak fandomu etkileyebilecek gelişmelerden bizi haberdar ettiler.

    OTW'nin tamamen pro bono (ücretsiz) çalışan Hukuk gönüllüleri ekibi, fandom olarak bizi etkileyebilecek kanunları anlamamıza yardımcı olmak, kanunların da bize saygı göstermesini sağlamak istiyor. Ekip ayrıca OTW'nin hukuk danışmanlığını da yapıyor; komite ve projelerimize yardımcı oluyor, tavsiyelerde bulunuyor. OTW'nin ayakta kalması için katkıları vazgeçilmez.

    Hukuk Komitesi'nin çalışmalarını devam ettirebilmesi için lütfen bizi destekleyin!

     

  • April Membership Drive: Spotlight on Legal

    By Priscilla Del Cima on Domenica, 6 April 2014 - 5:52pm
    Message type:

     

    Stepping Stones: Organization for Transformative Works Membership Drive, April 3-9

    If you've ever felt the sting of an unfair takedown notice, you know that copyright and trademark owners and other rights-holders don't always play nicely, or recognize the legitimacy and the value of fan activity. That's why the OTW's Legal Advocacy team is on call to defend fandom and the importance of fair use and transformative works.

    When they're not helping fans battle corporate plagiarism and exploitation, Cease & Desists, and those pesky takedowns, the Legal team works on the bigger picture. When governments consider fair use and copyright issues, OTW's Legal committee is there, advocating for fans' rights and fan creativity.

    Here's a recent timeline of the Legal Advocacy team's work in arguing for the protection of transformative works (like fanwork!) in copyright law:

    • In 2013, Legal submitted amicus briefs in Fox v. DISH and Dish v. ABC, arguing that copyright holders do not have absolute control over how their works are used, an issue obviously very close to our hearts as fans and as creators and consumers of fanworks.
    • Also in 2013, Legal submitted an amicus brief in Lenz v. Universal about how unfounded allegations of copyright infringement harm fair use. This issue is especially important in dealing with copyright owners' abuse of DMCA notices.
    • In December 2013, OTW staffer Rebecca Tushnet testified before the US Patent and Trademark Office and the US National Telecommunications and Information Administration to defend fair use in transformative works.
    • In February 2014, Legal submitted comments to the European Commission concerning possible EU copyright reform, trying to help ensure that the end result will be respectful of transformative works.

    Legal Advocacy's busy lawyers also track current events that affect fandom at large—causes and cases that could impact your rights to create and access fanworks. They've written posts covering Canadian law, the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) talks, Chinese law as it pertains to transformative works, and others, helping to keep us up to date on developments that may impact fandom.

    The OTW's entirely pro bono Legal volunteer team wants to help fandom understand the laws that affect us, and to help the law respect what we do. And of course, the team also plays the important role of legal consultants to the OTW itself, helping out all our committees and projects with advice and assistance: they're essential in keeping the OTW up and running.

    Please contribute to help us keep Legal's good work going!

     

  • The Future of Fanworks Legal Q&A - Post 4

    By Claudia Rebaza on Lunedì, 24 March 2014 - 5:14pm
    Message type:

    Banner by James of 2 red jets heading up in a grey sky towards an OTW logo

    Welcome to the final Q&A post with copyright specialists on "The Future of Fanworks." Today's responses are from Dr. Sonia Katyal.

    Don't forget to join us for our final Milestone Month chat on March 29th!


    1) What do you remember as your first encounter with fanworks or issues surrounding fanworks?

    I believe my first encounter with fanworks must have come through learning about slash fan fiction for an article I was writing on gender and copyright, called Performance, Property, and the Slashing of Gender in Fan Fiction. At the time, I thought that slash was one of the most imaginative, liberatory, and revolutionary modes of honoring male characters in major texts – and the fact that it largely began through the relationship between Kirk and Spock – underscored precisely how culturally transformative slash can become.

    2) Since that first encounter, have there been any notable changes you’ve seen regarding fandom and fanworks? Are there any things that have endured, or that you think may never change?

    One major change, to me, is the way in which content owners have crystallized their control over copyright—tolerating some areas, but cracking down on others. In the beginning, copyright owners seemed to object to broad forms of fan fiction; yet today, we see more and more examples of ‘tolerated uses,’ whereby content owners will not object if the site is clearly noncommercial or labeled with disclaimers. On the other hand, they may continue to object if the content on a web site includes video or other forms of copyrighted images, and if the content is overtly pornographic or sexual. So while content owners now realize that it’s a good thing to allow fans to express themselves, they still often draw the line when the web sites consist of images or content that they may find disagreeable in some form.

    3) What are some things you’d like to see happen — or not happen — with fanworks in the future?

    I would like to figure out ways to legally recognize the incredible creativity and authorship that fans add to copyrighted works. I would like content owners to limit their claims of copyright control (and ownership) over fan created works; and allow fan created works to flourish under the rubric of fair use.

    4) Given the increasing visibility of fanworks to both content/source creators and the public, what do you think are some important points to emphasize — or sources to use — when explaining fanworks to people who are unfamiliar with them?

    That there is tremendous creativity and brilliance in these works, often far more depth and complexity to the characters than one might ordinarily see in a piece of commercial content. One of the best quotes on this comes from Henry Jenkins, who has written, “...Fan fiction is a way of the culture repairing the damage done in a system where contemporary myths are owned by corporations instead of owned by the folk.”

    5) Do you think the scrutiny from academics, legal practitioners, entertainment industries and the media, have affected the creative freedom of source creators or fan creators? Are there ways in which different online spaces can have rules of engagement that vary based on a person’s particular connection to the community?

    Of course—any internal community, particularly those online—have their own sets of norms and rules that guide the posting and circulation of content. The scrutiny that lawyers and academics have exercised over the world of fandom has both enabled certain kinds of speech, and also suppressed others.

    6) The OTW proposed designating February 15th an International Fanworks Day to celebrate all things fanworks. Anyone can participate by advocating for, creating, or appreciating the wide variety of fanworks available. How would you choose to celebrate the event?

    I would ask all content creators to cease and desist, for a single day, from circulating their own content and/or attacking fan fiction, and instead spotlight the work of their brilliant fans – on their websites, merchandise, and other forms of copyrighted content. Recognizing the value of transformation, it seems, is the greatest form of integrity in copyright.

  • The Future of Fanworks Legal Q&A - Post 3

    By Claudia Rebaza on Domenica, 23 March 2014 - 6:48pm
    Message type:

    Banner by James of 2 red jets heading up in a grey sky towards an OTW logo

    Welcome to the third of our Milestone Month events! Today we continue with the third of four posts with copyright specialists on "The Future of Fanworks." Today's responses are from Dr. Peter Jaszi.


    1) What do you remember as your first encounter with fanworks or issues surrounding fanworks?

    I’m probably of the wrong generation (or too much of a slow learner) to answer this question usefully. In honesty, I should admit that my first real exposure to fanworks was through the legal controversies about them.

    2) Since that first encounter, have there been any notable changes you’ve seen regarding fandom and fanworks? Are there any things that have endured, or that you think may never change?

    I first learned about fan works at a conference I organized in 1991 (with Martha Woodmansee) around the topic of The Construction of Authorship. One of the standout papers was entitled “Common Properties of Pleasure: Texts in Nineteenth Century Women's Clubs,” by Anne Ruggles Gere (now at the University of Michigan). When it was read, the discussion pointed out the similarities between the textual practices Gere describes and the emergent world of fan fiction. Gere’s thought-provoking essay is collected in a 1994 volume published by Duke.

    3) What are some things you’d like to see happen — or not happen — with fanworks in the future?

    Probably the most significant development I’ve noted is the convergence of text-based fan writing and new technology, which has given us vidding. I got a chance to learn a bit more about this aspect of the field when I worked on the 2008 Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for On-line Video.

    4) Given the increasing visibility of fanworks to both content/source creators and the public, what do you think are some important points to emphasize — or sources to use — when explaining fanworks to people who are unfamiliar with them?

    The most important point is that although they are “derivative works” in enormous amounts of legal definition, they are not merely “derivative” in the common understanding of that term. Rather, they are new takes on existing subject matter, and their creators contribute enormous amounts of value added.

    5) Do you think the scrutiny from academics, legal practitioners, entertainment industries and the media, have affected the creative freedom of source creators or fan creators? Are there ways in which different online spaces can have rules of engagement that vary based on a person’s particular connection to the community?

    I certainly hope so, at least where the consequences of legal scrutiny are concerned. Creators of fan works should know that much, if not always all, of what they do fits comfortably within the range of follow-on creative practices sanctioned under the venerable copyright doctrine of “fair use."

    6) The OTW proposed designating February 15th an International Fanworks Day to celebrate all things fanworks. Anyone can participate by advocating for, creating, or appreciating the wide variety of fanworks available. How would you choose to celebrate the event?

    It would be great to organize a virtual discussion between creators in the U.S. and elsewhere. Here, they have the enormous advantage of the fair use doctrine — but others are not so fortunate. But there is a movement afoot in Europe to create a new copyright exception for non-commercial transformative works that would be useful if not ideal. Perhaps a forum of the kind I’m proposing could be the venue for a discussion of how creators could get behind this law reform initiative.

  • The Future of Fanworks Legal Q&A - Post 2

    By Claudia Rebaza on Sabato, 22 March 2014 - 9:20pm
    Message type:

    Banner by James of 2 red jets heading up in a grey sky towards an OTW logo

    Welcome to the third of our Milestone Month events! Today we continue with the second of four posts with copyright specialists on "The Future of Fanworks." Today's responses are from Susan Hall.


    1) What do you remember as your first encounter with fanworks or issues surrounding fanworks?

    This is something I need to split between recognising fanworks (and the issues surrounding them) as a distinct category and creating fanworks myself. The first came very much earlier than the second. I don’t believe I encountered my first ’zine until the late 80s or early 90s (it was Blakes 7, Blake/Avon slash and a friend handed it to me - in an honest-to-goodness brown envelope - for me to read on a train to Scotland, without bothering to mention any of the salient points, such as its being both quite explicit and quite meta - it being about Blake & Avon both encountering slash fiction and deciding on the spot to re-enact it.)

    From a very early age, though, I’d been creating fanworks in the sense of add-ons to things I’d read, stories I told myself before going to sleep at night, poems and so forth. The works I built on included Hiawatha, Swallows and Amazons, Sherlock Holmes, The Crystal Gryphon and the Seventh Swan (Nicholas Stuart Gray), the latter being something I’d got out of the library which had made a tremendous impression on me.

    Once I reached adolescence, it became something which I increasingly set down on paper - my parents bought me my first typewriter for my eleventh birthday - and shared (and swapped) with friends. I went to an all girls’ selective school and so far as I could tell we were all fannish; that was the era of Starsky and Hutch but there were a lot of other fan enthusiasms, including for Star Trek and Doctor Who as well as football, rugby and cricket.

    Teachers, too, frequently taught English literature by asking us to write missing scenes or scenes from another character’s perspective; although these were not expressed as being fanworks, they were forms of fan creativity.

    However, I was not aware of organised fandom or of fanworks under that name even at university, and though I did a law degree and subsequently a masters with a specific emphasis on intellectual property, issues of legality of fanworks did not arise then, either. I began being involved in online fandom first by participating in the Lord Peter Wimsey yahoogroup and then with Harry Potter for GrownUps, also on Yahoo.

    2) Since that first encounter, have there been any notable changes you’ve seen regarding fandom and fanworks? Are there any things that have endured, or that you think may never change?

    Massive changes have included the move to online means of sharing fanworks, the creation of AO3, the much greater acceptance by TPTB that fanworks exist (not always a positive thing, as the excruciating attempt by Caitlin Moran to force the stars of Sherlock to read explicit slash aloud shows), a much more coherent position being taken on legalities of fanworks.

    Things that seem never likely to change are fan feuds, splitting, bickering and online meltdowns, including flame-wars and the more disturbing extremes such as the Ms Scribe and Victoria Bitter affairs.

    3) What are some things you’d like to see happen — or not happen — with fanworks in the future?

    I’d like a much wider acceptance that there is a sound basis for their legality as fanworks both under US and EU law. However, one development I hope can be fended off are the various efforts to monetise and regularise fanworks.

    4) Given the increasing visibility of fanworks to both content/source creators and the public, what do you think are some important points to emphasize — or sources to use — when explaining fanworks to people who are unfamiliar with them?

    I think it’s important to stress that the simplistic "all fanworks are theft" line peddled by the likes of Anne Rice and Lee Goldberg is, and always has been, completely unsupported in law, even in the more restrictive legal systems of the EU. Furthermore, there are a lot of myths about alleged cases with have been brought and alleged rulings against fanworks, most of which do not stand up to scrutiny.

    A report recently commissioned by the EU into the use made to date by European countries of the exceptions in favour of "parody, caricature or pastiche" introduced by the Copyright Directive of 2001 or equivalent local exceptions was unable to find any EU cases where successful legal action had been brought against fanworks by rightsholders.

    This is not to deny possible chilling effects on fanworks by take down notices (eg YouTube) as occurred with Newport State of Mind (based upon Empire State of Mind, a hit song by the American rapper Jay-Z). The music video parody, written by M J Delaney and performed by Alex Warren and Terema Wainwright, achieved great success when posted on YouTube last year, but resulted in take down action by the right owners to have it removed from the internet.

    Sources to recommend on this are studies commissioned by the UK Intellectual Property office which found no evidence of harm to the economic interests of authors with respect to music video parodies and also the Hargreaves Report making Copyright recommendations to the UK Government.

    Hargreaves Report

    “The Government should firmly resist over-regulation of activities which do not prejudice the central objective of copyright, namely the provision of incentives to creators. Government should deliver copyright exceptions at national level to realise all the opportunities within the EU framework, including format shifting, parody, non-commercial research, and library archiving. The UK should also promote at EU level an exception to support text and data analytics. The UK should give a lead at EU level to develop a further copyright exception designed to build into the EU framework adaptability to new technologies. This would be designed to allow uses enabled by technology of works in ways which do not directly trade on the underlying creative and expressive purpose of the work. The Government should also legislate to ensure that these and other copyright exceptions are protected from override by contract” (p. 51 Review of Intellectual Property and Growth).

    Generally speaking, the creators of fanworks tend to have a very significant overlap with completist collectors of the original source material, the sort of people who attend midnight showings of the Hobbit on the day it opens and then subsequent repeat viewings and then buy the Blu-Ray. Also, I have several times myself bought or watched original material in order better to appreciate fanworks of it, and am aware of numerous other people doing so.

    5) Do you think the scrutiny from academics, legal practitioners, entertainment industries and the media, have affected the creative freedom of source creators or fan creators? Are there ways in which different online spaces can have rules of engagement that vary based on a person’s particular connection to the community?

    There’s a kind of awareness which was very much not the norm in the early days when I became involved in fandom (back to the slash zines in brown envelopes).

    One area of serious concern which has not received the attention which perhaps it should is the privatisation or enclosure of folk works, historical or mythological figures or works which are out of copyright (for example, Mulan, Robin Hood, the Jungle Books, Pooh Bear) by the growing use of trade marks. Although trade marks should only restrict commercial uses of intellectual property, the danger by way of using trade mark law as a way of deterring ISPs from hosting fanworks in future is a danger which should not be overlooked.

    A perennial area of annoyance is also the misuse of fan material by "semi-pro" fans, for example the storm relating to the publisher of a "behind the scenes" guide to Torchwood who made use of a significant body of on-line reviews, totalling almost 20% of the book as published. While fans create in a gift economy, the use of such materials in a business or quasi business setting tends to rankle, especially given a perceived gendered division between those who create the works and those who reuse and repackage them.

    6) The OTW proposed designating February 15th an International Fanworks Day to celebrate all things fanworks. Anyone can participate by advocating for, creating, or appreciating the wide variety of fanworks available. How would you choose to celebrate the event?

    I am terrible at remembering international days so it’s probably unlikely I will celebrate, though if I were to do so it would be by having an extended reccs post.

  • The Future of Fanworks Legal Q&A - Post 1

    By Claudia Rebaza on Venerdì, 21 March 2014 - 10:17pm
    Message type:

    Banner by James of 2 red jets heading up in a grey sky towards an OTW logo

    Welcome to the third of our Milestone Month events! Today begins the first of four posts with copyright specialists on "The Future of Fanworks." First up are responses from Dr. Chip Stewart.


    1) What do you remember as your first encounter with fanworks or issues surrounding fanworks?

    Harry Potter, between the release of the fourth and fifth books, so probably 2003. I remember following news and rumors on Mugglenet and HP-Lexicon and being referred to some of the wilder fan fiction stories.

    2) Since that first encounter, have there been any notable changes you’ve seen regarding fandom and fanworks? Are there any things that have endured, or that you think may never change?

    I've been more of an observer than a reader, so beyond noticing the mainstream appeal of some works — Fifty Shades of Grey, of course — I can't say I notice much difference. I have been surprised by the pervasiveness of the sexuality, but I don't think that's just fan fiction, I think that's the Internet in general providing a home for things to be published that would've been kept quieter before.

    The biggest shocker to me, and this is a bit off-topic, is the baseball slash fic, which I found out about in an article by Emma Span when she was at Baseball Prospectus.

    Also, watching the relationship between JK Rowling and fans online was quite interesting and perhaps illustrative of the dynamic going forward. Rowling seemed to be a huge fan of the online communities following her, as long as they stayed online and not for actual sale. When the Lexicon was about to become a book, her turn was in a sense confusing (considering her past support for the site) but also not surprising because of the commercial nature.

    That was a huge moment. If Rowling tolerates the fan community and allows publishing of the Lexicon without pushing her copyright claims, that would've been a huge step to making fan works more culturally (and perhaps legally) acceptable.

    3) What are some things you’d like to see happen — or not happen — with fanworks in the future?

    I'd love to see a good circuit court decision on a copyright case dealing specifically with fan fiction to provide some guidance, ideally one open to a finding of transformativeness and recognizing the lack of harm in noncommercial works by fans. The cases out there now — such as "The Wind Done Gone" case (Suntrust v. Houghton Mifflin, 11th Cir., 2001) are more about unauthorized sequels or parodies rather than fan works.

    The read-write culture is only going to continue to grow, and the expectation of each generation to come is going to be, "I can use that to make new things from my favorite characters and stories." The Web gives a home for these works to find a public audience. But we don't have clear guidance that this is OK — so it will all be done under the specter of infringement suits, DMCA takedowns, and/or prosecutions. That's not good for creativity or culture.

    4) Given the increasing visibility of fanworks to both content/source creators and the public, what do you think are some important points to emphasize — or sources to use — when explaining fanworks to people who are unfamiliar with them?

    To make the case that these are transformative works and that read-write culture is valuable, even if you don't quite get it, the books I'd suggest are "Remix" by Lawrence Lessig and "Cognitive Surplus" by Clay Shirky. The example I'd cite is Stephenie Meyer's support (or at least non-opposition) to the work that ultimately became "Fifty Shades of Grey" initially based on her characters.

    5) Do you think the scrutiny from academics, legal practitioners, entertainment industries and the media, have affected the creative freedom of source creators or fan creators? Are there ways in which different online spaces can have rules of engagement that vary based on a person’s particular connection to the community?

    I would like to think that academics and the legal community, particularly that portion that spends a good bit of time online, would be vigorously supporting and defending creators of fan works as both core expressive conduct under the First Amendment and as transformational fair use under copyright law. Regrettably, I think the chatter from the entertainment industry and the legislators they prop up seems to drown out advocacy efforts. I don't see a legislative avenue that will be helpful to fans anytime soon, and it may get worse before it gets better.

    So the options for fans are either (a) the courts, which I discussed above, hoping to find that great-facts case that a fair-use-friendly judge will use to stand as a defense for other fan works, and/or (b) having the communities police themselves through the culture they create in their online spaces. As for rules of engagement, I think making those clear on the sites (particularly in the terms and conditions) would be helpful. But overall, the key is promoting noncommercial uses that don't threaten or harm the character or world the original author has created — or, if a work is going to do this, having a point beyond titillation or snark to help the criticism/commentary argument for fair use. I think we'd want to build a defense stronger than parody to protect fan works in the future because an homage or a new work isn't really a parody of the original, and courts would recognize that.

    6) The OTW proposed designating February 15th an International Fanworks Day to celebrate all things fanworks. Anyone can participate by advocating for, creating, or appreciating the wide variety of fanworks available. How would you choose to celebrate the event?

    Give to those who are going to fight the fight. EFF would be my organization of choice.

  • The Trans-Pacific Partnership and Copyright

    By Claudia Rebaza on Domenica, 16 March 2014 - 5:02pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Erin of a spotlight on an OTW logo with the words 'Spotlight on Legal Issues'

    Recently there has been renewed discussion about SOPA in fan circles, which the OTW has written about a number of times. Thanks to activism on the part of Internet users and the participation of various large, well known online sites, the legislation was shelved back in 2012.

    However, while SOPA itself has not returned, some of the concepts behind SOPA re-appear like the heads on the Hydra, usually in connection to other actions by the U.S. government which may affect some, if not all, of the U.S.'s Copyright Act. Recent concerns seem to be connected to the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) talks and who President Obama has nominated to join the team of U.S. negotiators.

    Although the TPP contents have not been publicly released, there have been leaks about its content which is opposed by digital rights watchers. As our friends at the EFF state:

    "TPP's completion becomes ever more tenuous as resistance to its corporate-driven policies continue to dissolve political support for the deal. Yet Obama's nomination of Holleyman suggests that his administration has no intention of removing the draconian copyright policies out of TPP no matter how unpopular or contentious they may be. It also reflects the greater issue at hand—the White House is choosing to heed the demands of Hollywood and other corporate giants and ignore the interests of users."

    U.S. fans who are concerned about preserving their rights should contact their representatives in Congress to oppose Trade Promotion Authority. This creates special rules that empower the White House to negotiate and sign trade agreements without Congressional oversight, which also denies citizens the ability to influence or block those decisions as was done with SOPA and PIPA.

    A concern about the repeated appearance of SOPA scare notices is that fans who spend time and energy on false alarms may overlook or decide to skip responding when events and issues truly need their voices. If you are asked to circulate information about copyright matters or legal action affecting fans, please check first with a trusted resource such as The Electronic Frontier Foundation, Public Knowledge, the Center for Democracy & Technology, or the OTW first. If there is legislation or legal activity threatening fans' rights, you can be sure that one or more of these organizations will be actively trying to reach you with information about action you can take.

    We also note that a number of large corporations, such as Google and Yahoo (who own tumblr) also have their own stake in preserving the status quo concerning Fair Use, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act and the current term of years of copyright ownership. They were active in the fight against SOPA in January of 2012, when the bill was stopped, and if the House and Senate again try to change the laws that they have built their businesses around, we expect that they will again lobby against it and inform their users about the issues.

    If you have questions about legal matters related to fanworks and fan activities, you can always send a message to the OTW's legal team. We are advocates for and about fandom, and we will protect fans' rights to be creative and share their creativity noncommercially, and work to stop or overturn any laws that would block fans from doing so. You can also subscribe to OTW News through the platform of your choice to stay informed.

Pagine

Subscribe to Legal Advocacy