Commercialization of Fans

  • OTW Fannews: Writers of all stripes

    By Claudia Rebaza on Wednesday, 19 March 2014 - 10:13pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Ania of a typewriter keyboard spelling out the post title

    • Author Robert Jackson Bennett wrote about how to define fans and how that related to his role as a content creator. "I happened to meet a much more established writer than me...I brought up the sort of weird alienation I felt...I knew in my head that I was writing stuff for everyone, for all kinds of people, something that’s applicable to humanity in general rather than people like me, but it was still odd to see it right in front of me, these people I wasn’t like, and know that I was writing for them. He looked at me and said, 'That’s because they’re not you’re[sic] people. They’re not. Don’t make the mistake of thinking that they are.'"
    • ComplexTech posted an interview with author Clive Thompson, who may have some insight for Bennett. "[T]he cognitive benefits of the Internet require social work. That turns out to be a problem for the 10 percent of the population who regards social work with absolute horror...If you pie-chart them, a lot of the negative pieces about the Internet are written by novelists." However, he thinks some writers are the ones to watch. "[T]he world of fan fiction is the most technologically explosive thing I've ever seen in my life. Every single technology that has come along, fan fiction people have come along and colonized it and stress-tested it and found the most amazing things...If you're ever wondering about a future technology, just drop what you're doing and find out what fan fiction people are doing with it...whatever it is, it's the future."
    • Such discoveries aren't likely to come from fanfic-for-hire, as Amazon is commissioning authors to launch fandom lines. Orion Books Editor Jo Gledhill advised fanfic writers to know what makes them happy. "[D]ecide whether you actually do want to find a mainstream publisher! It’s not for everyone. If you love writing and you love the support network of fan fiction, don’t think of it as a stepping stone. It’s a huge community with millions of readers, you’ll get some fabulous advice and feedback as your writing develops."
    • Here & Now focused on the value of that network in a story about Harry Potter fan. "Esther Earl was diagnosed with cancer at the age of 12, and died in 2010 shortly after her 16th birthday. But in that short time, she developed a network of friends through social media, blogging and YouTube videos. She was a devoted fan of the Harry Potter books and was an active member of the Harry Potter Alliance. At LeakyCon, a convention for Harry Potter enthusiasts, Esther met young adult author and vlogger John Green, who would become a friend. Green dedicated his best selling book “The Fault In Our Stars” to her and said that she was an inspiration for the novel."

    What stories and posts about fanfic writing have been important to you? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Corporate assembly fandom

    By Claudia Rebaza on Wednesday, 12 March 2014 - 7:19pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Diane of a conveyor belt rolling the post title forward

    • Frontline featured a number of fandoms in its documentary Generation Like. "From the agency that’s leveraging the Twitter followers of celebrities like Ian Somerhalder (The Vampire Diaries) to make lucrative product endorsement deals, to the 'grassroots' social media campaign behind the Hollywood blockbuster The Hunger Games: Catching Fire, "Generation Like" explores how companies are increasingly enlisting kids as willing foot soldiers in their marketing machines."
    • A "Social Media Week" event featured a panel on “Fueling Social Fandom”. "'You think about fandom not as a one night stand everytime your show is on…it’s a long time relationship,' Fishman said, adding the most important thing for TV executives to do mirrors a relationship: listening."
    • Sugarscape is one of many sites featuring a fanfiction contest but this one is done piecemeal. "The idea is that every day when the story is updates, you'll have the chance to add the next paragraph all over again and by Sunday 23rd February, we'll have the full fan fiction. So even if yours doesn't get picked the first day, keep entering every time the story updates and you could see your writing up on the site!"
    • Kotaku used votes instead to create a 'Fan Built Bot' for Transformers. "Windblade is a rare female Transformer...Some people are vexxed by the idea of female Transformers...we do get an episode where most of the old-timey female robots are destroyed for being female, which doesn't seem nice. In the IDW Comics continuity, Arcee is the result of a failed experiment to introduce gender to Transformers. That doesn't seem nice either."
    • While some fan activities in the news seem more about recreation or transforming the format of a work, the question for many these days may be whether they're part of a corporate marketing effort and to what end.

    What ways of creating fandoms or fanworks have you come across? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Marketing to women

    By Claudia Rebaza on Monday, 3 March 2014 - 1:22am
    Message type:

    Banner by Bremo of a smiling Frank Sinatra passing a group of excited fangirls

    • There have been discussions in the media over past months that suggest that a significant reason for the erasure of women in fandom is that companies have no interest in marketing to them. This was made explicit in an article on io9 which discussed the fear of TV network executives that their cartoons had too many female fans.
    • Even targeting stereotypical female interests seems difficult for marketers to do, leaving women's fashion options lacking for years. Perhaps that's why this feature on a history of fangirl fashion in Elle seems to be more a collection of random female fan photos than an exploration of the creative fashion statements seen at fan gatherings.
    • Part of the problem may be the general disapproval expressed when women come up with their own ways of enjoying fandom. Even when commercial entities use many of the same ideas it's somehow different when fans do these things for themselves. This attitude may be a factor in why even some fannish people resist becoming fans.
    • The Shipping News focused on what such disapproval said about wider society. "[I]t’s not the fans that make it all about sex, it’s everyone else...we just like to see people fall in love. Sure, sex is a part of that – a super fun part that we enjoy immensely – but anyone that has read over 80,000 words to get to a kiss, knows that porn is just a side effect...they have got to stop assuming that slash fandom is synonymous with sexual deviancy. Slash fandom encompasses A LOT of different things, so the fact that they are obsessed with the part that is porn says more about them than it does about us."

    What issues involving female fandom have you come across? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: What fanfic does for writers

    By Claudia Rebaza on Monday, 10 February 2014 - 5:00pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Bremo of a Slaughterhouse Five book cover with falling bombs

    • Two articles examined the value of Amazon's Kindle Worlds. Slate featured author Hugh Howey. "I had read Slaughterhouse-Five in high school and didn’t really get it. And then a few years ago, I studied the work again, and the story had not just meaning but special meaning...Vonnegut’s didactic work helped me through a similar trauma. With my first work of fan fiction, I chose to use his example of writing about the bombing of Dresden in order to confront my 9/11 experiences—an event I’ve long avoided discussing directly. And what I discovered surprised me. Fan fiction is difficult. More difficult than the dozen or so novels I’d previously written."
    • Over at MainStreet, Craig Donofrio questioned what Kindle Worlds does for authors. "Another Kindle Worlds author, C.L. Marlene, began writing Vampire Diaries fan fiction for Kindle Worlds last June. It was her first venture into any kind of publishing, and she has written two novels, a novella and a short story since then. While sales have only allowed her 'a few extra nice dates' with her husband and gave her 'a minute bump or two' for her savings account, her overall experience with Worlds has been positive and she would recommend it to other authors—with the caveat to stay realistic. 'I'm not expecting this to pay my bills or launch me into a best-selling author list.'"
    • Certainly one way of getting paid for fanfic is writing a fanfic article, as Cora Frazier did at The New Yorker with her Scandal fanfiction where "Olivia Pope Fixes Chris Christie."
    • The Charleston, South Carolina Post & Courier included fan fiction in the bio of the youngest college student in their area. "Amber went on to skip third, fifth and seventh grades. Fourth-grade was her last full year in a traditional school setting, and after that year, Amber was helping high school students with algebra concepts." Her writing skills were quickly noted. "Rachel Walker, an associate professor of psychology, taught Amber in a writing and psychology class last semester, and she said Amber was 'exceptional.' The class was meant to teach students scientific writing, and Amber grasped concepts that many students find to be challenging, Walker said."

    What has fanfiction done for you? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom books

    By Claudia Rebaza on Thursday, 12 December 2013 - 11:48pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Lisa of a colorful row of covers with the post title across them

    • Various books and projects revolving around fandom are making the rounds of media sites. The Chicago Tribune interviewed the authors of Fangasm about their experiences in Supernatural fandom. When asked "What makes fandom worthy of academic study?" the authors responded that "Fandom is a way people express and work through a lot of their stuff. When I was a clinician, I used to practice narrative therapy, which helps people rewrite their life stories and make meaning out of them. People do the same thing through fandom, through writing fan fiction or making fan art or any of the creative pursuits that go into fandom." Plus there are "a lot of commonalities between how 'othered' groups in the 18th century were being talked about and how fan communities in the present time were being talked about...on some level what people in that fan community were doing then was not being valued as art or as something worthy of study."
    • The Pacific Standard would certainly agree, calling fanfic The Next Great Literature in its discussion of the book Fic. "In 1850, William Makepeace Thackeray ...published Rebecca and Rowena, a satirical novel motivated by his dissatisfaction with the ending of another book: Sir Walter Scott’s Ivanhoe...Thackeray didn’t know he was a shipper...because the term didn’t exist in the 19th century. It’s a relatively recent invention, coined not by literary scholars or critics but by members of the fan fiction community, a vast network of people—mostly amateurs, mostly women—who read and write stories using characters and settings created by professionals."
    • Hypable also took a look at the book, discussing the various essays and the current environment into which the book has been released. "Readers should not be put off by the academic appearance of the collection. Although Jamison is a professor of literature, she utilises a more anecdotal style as she details the experiences within different fandoms, and chronicles various controversies within the fanfiction community."
    • In the meantime, more people and entities are looking for ways to get fanfiction into bookstores and not just digital archives. The Geekiary wrote about one such effort, Big Bang Press, which is using Kickstarter to launch its company, with three planned novels. "Fan fiction is already a resistive act, but this is taking things to a whole new level. It’s an opportunity for stories featuring a diverse range of protagonists, including POC and queer characters. Stories that have been ignored because they is too much of a risk; stories that the mainstream media does not think are economically viable; the kind of stories that fandom has been demanding for decades."

    What fandom books have you been reading? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Multiple takes of the same thing

    By Claudia Rebaza on Friday, 8 November 2013 - 10:27pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Bremo with the post title and images of three different actors portraying Sherlock Holmes

    • The romance publishing industry was among the first to start bringing in self-published writers and first time novelists, which they are now doing through Wattpad. The site has been active internationally, both promoting its site and now partnering with publishers to create a print imprint. Allen Lau, CEO of Wattpad, said “A lot of writers are afraid of sharing their work...And if you hide your work, you miss the opportunity to let other people appreciate your writing, and also missing some big opportunities in the process—your story might even become a movie, for example.”
    • Writers wary of sharing their work have a good reason for it though -- theft. The case of Shey Stahl is a good example of many writers feeding one person's career. "Goodreads reviewer Ari Bookzilla posted a word-by-word comparison between excerpts of Stahl's latest novel, For the Summer, and a popular Twilight fanfic known as Dusty...Other Goodreaders claimed that the novel's summary had been lifted from another Twilight fic: another popular offering called Pickup Truck...Even the title, "For the Summer," is the title of another well-known Twilight fic...The question of why Stahl may have stolen so much from Twilight fanfic authors is simple: She was one. Stahl wrote fanfic under the pen name Jaydmommy, and she was plagued by plagiarism allegations then, too."
    • Such cases of plagiarism make cases such as the ongoing lawsuit involving Sherlock Holmes seem as antiquated as the copyright at the center of the battle. As Tech Dirt pointed out, it would seem that the Conan Doyle Estate Is Horrified That The Public Domain Might Create 'Multiple Personalities' Of Sherlock Holmes. The estate's argument "presents a way to make copyright on characters perpetual. You just need to have someone continue to release new works that have some minor change to the character, and they get to pretend you have a new starting point for the public domain ticker" meaning that "so long as you never 'complete' the character creation, they can never go into the public domain."
    • Shadowlocked argued that there not only can be should be multiple takes on a franchise. "Neill Blomkamp's humility in acknowledging the subjective side of fandom and that his take on the franchise wouldn't have been for everyone is admirable, but perhaps fans as well as filmmakers could learn from this approach. As a fan, it's arguably better to look at a film in a franchise made by a particular director as that director's take on the franchise, rather than, 'How dare they ruin my beloved franchise?' Because directors can be fans too, and not all fans appreciate the source material in exactly the same way."

    What stories about fanfiction publishing and legal rights have you seen? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Ripped from fandom

    By Claudia Rebaza on Thursday, 31 October 2013 - 5:11pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Bremo of the post title with a tear through the word 'Ripped'

    • Communities of fanfic writers took their writing group practices online decades ago. On the Media reported on a commercial copy of these spaces, dubbing it "virtual workshopping. A website from Penguin Publishing, Book Country, enables thousands of writers to exchange manuscripts and notes and self-publish their work. A few have even gotten traditional publishing deals through the site." Other than the book deals, the mechanisms sound familiar. "[I]f a writer has written something that is just awful, not very many people will comment on it or they will comment briefly and respectfully but not say very much; there's a sort of graceful fade away. And the second thing that can happen is a manuscript that might seem terrible to one reader seems fantastic to another, because they are the right audience for it. You can find sub-categories and niche audiences that you wouldn't otherwise access."
    • While not commercial, Caroline Siede wrote in A.V. Club about a fandom practice that has been automated, making gifs. "Gifs have long been the bread and butter of Tumblr—the perfect way to capture every moment of Dean/Castiel sexual tension, every David Tennant eyebrow raise, and, apparently, every moment of Omar Little badassery...Either to mock these fans or to help them celebrate their beloved Wire by capturing even more moments from the show, programmer Darius Kazemi has created a robot that posts a random gif and an accompanying line of dialogue from The Wire every hour."
    • At SB Nation an "experiment" in writing fanfiction to accompany a photo turned into dueling fics when "my effort at fulfilling this assignment struck my esteemed girlfriend as so gross that she would not let it stand but composed her own rival fan fiction Friday to bring the touch of urbanity to the proceedings."
    • Hero Complex interviewed Eric Moro, Wikia’s director of entertainment programming and asked "Why a collaborative effort between professionals and an online fan community?" to which he replied "[O]ur various anime and manga communities draw incredibly large audiences from all over the world. So hosting a project in this space allowed us to play at a global level. Second...it’s more about the creator that’s involved than it is about the character(s). Third, comic book, movie and TV characters are all tied up in complicated rights issues/licenses. And while we’re just starting to see networks work in this space (“The Vampire Diaries” fan fiction through Amazon’s Kindle Worlds, for example), it’s still not an idea the industry has fully embraced."

    What "ripped from fandom" stories have you seen? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Commercializing fan gatherings

    By Claudia Rebaza on Tuesday, 29 October 2013 - 6:46pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Robyn of money symbols behind the post's title

    • Buzzfeed looked at the umbrella of Disney fandom at its company fancon. "D23 serves as a giant hype machine for the company’s upcoming productions and consumer products, a big shopping center for the stuff they already have out, and a central meeting spot for fans and fan-vendors from around the world. It has two main constituencies: the hardcore Disney fans — D23 is also the name of the company’s official fan club, with 23 signifying the year Walt Disney moved to Hollywood and founded the studio — and members of the press who brave the traffic to Anaheim to write about the the studio’s movie presentations. The event is like Comic-Con, but with fewer snarky fanboys and more family-centric fare."
    • A post at the Vancouver Sun looks at the evolution of gaming cons. "Over time there has been a definitive split between the two types of conventions, with consumer based ones feeding more into the actual fandom of games. PAX itself is built on the shoulders of this fandom, sponsored and created by Penny Arcade, an online comic that has long dealt with video game and various other nerd and geek culture. While most developers will hardly ever achieve a sort of fame (or notoriety) similar to film or television stars, these conventions give the public, and players a chance to directly interact with those who on the average day are hard to reach. Feedback from these conventions, where betas and alphas of games are available to play, not only help build hype and anticipation for upcoming games, but also allows the developers to gather much needed and necessary feedback from those who will eventually be buying their product."
    • Meanwhile Tumblr plays host to a virtual book club that is part user reaction and part viral marketing. “I still think it can be tricky to create the feel of a book club with people in different time zones who never get to meet. I’m humbly suggesting that Tumblr might be the best way to do it. You can use text as short or longform as you want, art, gifs, videos, songs; you can include hundreds or thousands of contributors without getting confusing; and you can create original posts or share interesting things you find elsewhere on the Web.”
    • These commercial efforts stand in contrast to a recent post on NextGov about an unexpected encounter with fandom, and its relevance to other social activists. "One key insight, though, came from...panelist Lauren Bird of the Harry Potter Alliance...[about]...how super-fandom can go hand in hand with intense criticism...Bird begins her defense acknowledging it may seem silly to protest labor practices in the chocolate industry by focusing on an entertainment company rather than, say, Nestle or Hershey’s. But it makes sense for the HPA...partly because a shift by Warner Brothers could put pressure on larger players in the chocolate industry." Reporter Joseph Marcks concluded "The idea that [a government] agency’s greatest fans could also be among its biggest online gadflies is rare in government. It’s tough to blame agencies for this. Many of them face so much online vitriol it’s tough to sift out any constructive criticism. But agencies are also sometimes so cynical about their own capacity for popularity that they might not recognize a fan movement even if it existed."

    What merging of corporate interests and fan gatherings have you seen? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: What does fanfic do well?

    By Claudia Rebaza on Saturday, 12 October 2013 - 4:32pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Lisa of women in the 1920s gathered around 3 women using typewriters

    • Romance site Heroes & Heartbreakers discussed Why Romance Fans Read Fan Fiction. "[E]ven between quality fanfiction and a good romance novel, there are essential differences. The most obvious is the prevalence of 'slash fiction'" whereas "Other differences are structural...Fics aren’t as standardized as novels, which can be refreshing when I want to read a love story but don’t want to commit to a full novel." In addition to being online, free, and plentiful, "there are plots I can only accept in fan fiction, because of their sheer implausibility" and "there are some plots fan fiction just does better."
    • While fanfiction didn't invent erotica, it's certainly done a lot to promote it. In an interview on The Frisky, two of the three authors interviewed got their start in it. "Avital:...Here I was reading a fan story about Eric & Sookie and then all of a sudden — whoa! This was way past anything HBO was showing or Charlaine Harris intimated at in her PG-13 books. Jeanette: That’s quite similar to the fan fiction erotica discovery process, Jess. Just, with fan fiction, you go looking for more of some characters you love, and then BAM! Hardcore graphic sex between those characters you love. What’s not to like there?"
    • ABS-CBNNews pointed out the visibility of Filipino characters and stories on Wattpad. "A number of Filipino users whose stories first appeared on Wattpad have also been picked up by publishers and are now selling well in bookstores, including 'Diary ng Panget' by HaveYouSeenThisGirl (PSICOM) and 'She's Dating the Gangster' by Bianca B. Bernardino (Summit). Recognizing their growing Filipino market, the Wattpad team is in the Philippines to join the book fair at the SMX Convention Center and meet their readers for the first time...The event also features a meet and greet with Wattpad’s hottest young writers...Over 900 Wattpad users have already registered to attend the event."
    • Mahou Tofu explored how everyone can be a fan fiction writer. "I guess the theme here is that everyone can pretty much relate to fan writers. Whether you have thought up a story that is slightly different from the one that was professionally written, read a fanfiction, or written anything ourselves, fan writing in general is something that starts with the word 'fan' for a reason. We are fanatics and there is a demand for more. We may not all be professional writers, but there is good stuff out there."
    • On the flip side, The Soap Box discussed the drawbacks of fanfic including unfinished stories, too much romance, endless stories, unreadable work and "unnecessary filler."

    What do you think fan fiction does well? Write about your favorite works in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Working for a better playing field

    By Claudia Rebaza on Tuesday, 8 October 2013 - 5:01pm
    Message type:

    Banner by Natasha of a man's side profile done as a doodle

    • Michelle Dean wrote in Flavorwire about why Kurt Vonnegut should not be part of Kindle Worlds. "The fights about identity politics in the fan-fiction community make those in good, old real world politics child’s play — which mostly tells you how crucially important those debates are to a great many people. There is, I am saying, in the better bits of fan-fiction a desire for a truly 'transformative' use. And it’s one we might do well to respect — even if we are in charge of some of the most prestigious literary estates in the country."
    • Fans are becoming more active in demanding their rights to fair use of their entertainment. But fans can also be confused about what steps they should take to protect themselves and which rights to assert. Business 2 Community published a set of legal myths about fanfiction, though the author noted she was not an attorney. The myths included believing that disclaimers protect you, and believing that fanfiction can't be plagiarized.
    • HuffPost Live hosted a discussion about the legality of fanfiction with various authors including Naomi Novik. In response to a discussion about how permissiveness varies from author to author, she pointed out "I'm one of the founders of The Organization for Tranformative Works, which is a non-profit that works to protect the rights of fan creators. And the Archive of Our Own is based on the principle that people do have the right under fair use protection in the U.S. to write transformative, non-commercial works of fanfiction, whether or not the author consents." Comparing fanfiction to the right of readers to review a work of fiction, she said "We generally recognize that people have the right to respond as they want." (No transcript available)
    • While hosting content digitally has made sharing fanworks easier and broadened the possibilities of who can take part, when a site used by fans closes or is sold, very often content posted there gets lost as was the case for Bebo users. In the end, the right to create needs to go hand-in-hand with the ability to share and preserve.

    What discussion have you seen about legal aspects of fanworks? Write about it in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a roundup post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

Pages

Subscribe to Commercialization of Fans