Intellectual Property

  • OTW Fannews: Reconsidering Fans & Fanworks

    By Claudia Rebaza on Saturday, 30 August 2014 - 4:09pm
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    Robot fans at a Korean baseball game

    • It's not unusual to find media articles or online posts with dubious declarations about fanworks' legal status, but it's less common to find posts that reconsider the topic. One writer for Business2Community took advice from OTW Legal staffer Heidi Tandy to better explore relevant legal cases and events. "One of the hallmarks of fan fiction is that it must be non-commercial. Yet many of the sites have ads on them – so aren’t they commercial? Not necessarily, says Tandy. 'Since 2002, there’s been a pretty clear distinction about what constitutes commercial vs. non-commercial publishing. I did a panel with Warner Brothers, and posed the question, ‘What if we put Google Ads or become an Amazon affiliate on our fan fiction site as a way to pay our server and hosting bills?’ And they said, ‘We have no problem with self-funding. What we have is a problem is with people selling things as if they are authorized or created by us or the original author.’'”
    • The Los Angeles Times posted about another recent legal case on Sherlock Holmes' public domain status which made clear the judge's views. "'The Doyle estate's business strategy is plain: charge a modest license fee for which there is no legal basis, in the hope that the 'rational' writer or publisher asked for the fee will pay it rather than incur a greater cost, in legal expenses, in challenging the legality of the demand. The strategy had worked ... only Klinger (so far as we know) resisted,' Posner wrote in his opinion. 'In effect he was a private attorney general, combating a disreputable business practice — a form of extortion — and he is seeking by the present motion not to obtain a reward but merely to avoid a loss.'"
    • TIME posted about robots replacing fans at Korean baseball games. "Hanwha’s robot fans will work as stand-ins for human fans who can’t attend a game. Remote fans will be able to control some of the robots’ movements — presumably certain hand gestures in the direction of umpires — and can even upload an image of their face to be shown on the machine’s screen. The robots will also let fans watch the game from afar, giving more fans the opportunity to join in the action and cheer on their team." Whether the robot fans will have the same legal rights as human fans remains to be seen but legal developments are sure to keep evolving!

    What tech and legal developments about fandom have caught your attention? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Working For and Against Fans

    By Jennifer Rose Hale on Thursday, 21 August 2014 - 4:46pm
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    People engaged in tug of war. Text reads OTW Fannews Working For and Against Fans
    • In February 2014, OTW Legal submitted comments to the European Commission in regards to its copyright regulations review. Now a report is out summing up the responses. "The results are not entirely surprising and very clear: we have a strong divide among copyright stakeholders with end users and institutional users (e.g. libraries, archives, universities) strongly in favor of copyright reform and authors, collective management organizations, publishers and producers in favor of the current copyright system."
    • Australia is undergoing a similar process, and is requesting comments from "interested organisations and individuals on the questions outlined in the discussion paper and on other possible approaches to address this issue." Submissions close on Monday, 1 September 2014. The Australian government is taking a very pro-copyright holder stance emphasizing levels of piracy and saying "Everyone has a role to play in reducing online copyright infringement. Rights holders need to ensure that content can be accessed easily and at a reasonable price. Internet service providers (ISPs) can take reasonable steps to ensure their systems are not used to infringe copyright. Consumers can do the right thing and access content lawfully."
    • Internet Policy Review featured a discussion of copyright in the UK and focused on gaming content. "Valve uses the Steam Workshop as a space where player-created content can be bought. The proceeds then get split between Valve and the item creator....[a fan] began distributing the shirts through a print on demand e-commerce service until Valve sent a takedown request. 'I was kind of under the impression that because Valve is so open to the community profiting - they've got the whole Workshop - I thought maybe they would encourage that sort of thing but they want people to do it through their channels.'...Wild was later contacted by We Love Fine, a third-party which works with Valve to get the company's approval for selling fan-designed products. A couple of his designs are now on the We Love Fine site and his work will also be included in the official shop catalogue for Valve's upcoming multimillion dollar Dota 2 professional gaming tournament."
    • ClickZ told marketers they need to embrace fan content. "This week it was reported that TripAdvisor has created a page for the Grand Budapest Hotel...While the page comes with a disclaimer...the devotion with which fans have thrown themselves into crafting unique user-generated content is very real. To date, more than 120 TripAdvisor users from all over the world have taken the time to review their fictional experience at the fictional hotel, peppering their posts with inside jokes only those who have seen the film would understand. The response demonstrates an interest in the movie that goes beyond the standard consumer reaction to entertainment content. In the literary world, this behavior is most closely related to fan fiction."

    What fandom copyright issues have you been seeing? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Legal Represents Fans at Roundtable

    By Kiri Van Santen on Monday, 18 August 2014 - 5:44pm
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    Banner by Erin of a spotlight on an OTW logo with the words 'Spotlight on Legal Issues'

    The OTW's Legal Committee has been representing fans in a series of discussions dubbed "The Green Paper Roundtable", which are part of the U.S. National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO)'s efforts to seek public comments on copyright policy issues.

    The OTW's earlier participation led to our team having a seat in these ongoing discussions to advise the NTIA/PTO on a legal framework for the creation of remixes.

    The USPTO has posted the video and transcript of its Los Angeles Green Paper roundtable which was held on July 29. Unfortunately, the transcript is not of the best quality though it may be helpful to some.

    The remix panel, which the OTW participated in, is the second panel of the morning (starting at about 1:56:00 of the morning video).

    Praise for the OTW and Fans' Participation

    Mitch Stoltz of the Electronic Frontier Foundation gave a shoutout to the OTW's Green Paper submission linked above:

    "I was moved by the passion of a lot of the advocates on this panel on all sides of this issue and I'm moved by art and creative work of all kinds. I want to ask everyone here and everyone watching online that if you too are moved by creative work and the passion of the people who create it is to take another look at the green paper comments submitted by the Organization for Transformative Works.

    This was pages and pages of incredibly moving personal stories about people, and these are, for the most part, marginalised people. These are women, these are people of colour, these are new Americans, these are LGBT, using fanwork, using video and writing and music and other media and using mainstream creative work to talk back to popular culture, to participate in popular culture, to enrich it and maybe to change it, and I was moved to tears by some of these stories. These are folks who, most of them will never be able to afford the hourly rates of Dina [LaPolt] or Jay [Cooper] or even lesser attorneys. Some of them will, some of them will probably become mainstream artists and in so doing change our culture for the better. Most won't, certainly they don't right now.

    I will encourage everyone, and I encourage the task force and the copyright office to take another look at those comments and once you have I think there is no way that anyone would be able to come back to the task force and say that these people are not creative, that they are not creators, that they don't contribute to our shared culture, that they don't deserve the same protection and the same freedom that our laws give to mainstream artists. Thank you."

    You can view his comment at 3:35:25 of the afternoon video.

    Standing Against Barriers to Speech

    Betsy Rosenblatt of the OTW also said:

    "I think we're looking at two very competing rights. One is the right to control what happens with your work. The other is the right of speech. And, as Jay pointed out, many people struggle for years to hone their crafts. Many of those people who are struggling for years to hone their crafts are doing so by playing cover songs, for example, or by making mash-ups through which they learn editing skills, video skills, that sort of thing. And licensing not only prices many of these struggling artists out of creation, but also breeds censorship, as I think the examples highlight. Naturally, Steven Tyler doesn't want people using his music, in that particular example, but that's exactly why we have fair use, to allow people to make commentary without getting his permission.

    Legal uncertainty permits over-reaching by copyright holders, and, particularly in concert with the digital millennium copyright act notice and takedown procedure, can be used to suppress commentary or criticism by playing on the risk aversion—the rational risk aversion—of intermediaries who don't want their safe harbour taken away. And uncertainty also disproportionately chills speech by the smallest and least privileged speakers. Our fair use regime generally favours transformative non-commercial speech, so generally would favour—and we hear this all the time, this isn't just the Organization for Transformative Works saying it—generally favours the sort of remix embodied in, the sort of mash-up embodied in fanworks and fan cultures, but when paired with the burden-shifting regime of the DMCA, ends up being very chilling because it moves the burden of proving non-infringement to the remix artists and away from proving infringement to the copyright owners.

    What that means is it harms those who already face financial or social barriers to speech, or having difficulty finding or paying for legal services. As an example, we at the OTW get e-mails and calls from men who say 'I got a takedown notice. I'm going to fight it. Help me.' We get calls and e-mails from women who say "'I'm afraid to post my 'My Little Pony' fiction because I'll get kicked off the internet.' Those are very different reactions to the same law based on the amount of privilege that they have going in. So I have some concrete suggestions for how to approach this. Remix creators need to know that they have a right to create without permission, and they don't just exist at the sufferance of copyright owners. And the law should expressly permit non-commercial remix through doctrines very much like what we have now—fair use, safe harbours. But—and these should be flexible—but not permit the sort of uncertainty we have now. For example, they shouldn't make remix illegal, as 1201 would, if not for the copyright office exemptions provided in 2010 and 2012. And we should seriously consider the possibility of a specific safe harbour for non-commercial remix as Canada has."

    You can view Betsy's statement at 2:24:10 of the morning video.


    OTW's Legal Committee works on behalf of fans and fandom to make sure our voices are represented in these important discussions, and we will continue to update you on these developments. As part of the Organization for Transformative Works, a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization, OTW Legal exists entirely on the generosity of our donors. If you appreciate their work, please consider donating today.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom Enabled

    By Jennifer Rose Hale on Saturday, 9 August 2014 - 5:19pm
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    Industrial machinery with text that reads Fandom Enabled OTW Fannews
    • At Aeon Michelle Nijhuis discusses genderswapping with her daughter. "When I first wrote about my daughter’s Hobbit genderswap, many people said that fanfiction writers were way ahead of us, and so they were: Female Bilbo is a familiar fanfic character. My daughter isn’t the first reader who’s wondered what would happen if a girl stepped into Tolkien’s wonderful, timeless story, and I hope she’s far from the last."
    • Public Knowledge noted that Hasbro is now offering the option of fan-made merchandise through 3-D printing. "Many of these types of fan works are likely protected by fair use. But creating and selling My Little Pony figurines is something that, at a minimum, Hasbro could have tied up in lawsuits for years. To its credit, Hasbro decided not to sue this community of super fans. Instead, they found a way to give them a license to create and profit from their creations. Creators on SuperFanArt can now confidently sell fully licensed versions of their works. The community gets the ability to thrive, Hasbro gets to build good will (and, presumably, a cut of sales), and no one gets sued."
    • NBC News also suggested that 3-D printing might revolutionize the toy industry. "These fan creations are enthusiastically shared on the Internet, kind of like fan fiction, in which people write their own versions of stories that they love. These designs are going to circulate anyway, Liverman said, so companies might as well offer them alongside their own and encourage people to interact with their brand....Charles Mire, founder of Structur3d Printing in Ontario, likens the trend to 'cosplay,' where people dress up like their favorite characters."
    • A The New Yorker featured the reason why The Sims became the first game to represent LGBT experiences, and how this was crucial to its success. "During The Sims’s protracted development, the team had debated whether to permit same-sex relationships in the game. If this digital petri dish was to accurately model all aspects of human life, from work to play and love, it was natural that it would facilitate gay relationships." Instead, "[t]he controversy came this year, when Nintendo released, in the West, its Sims-esque video game Tomodachi Life, a game in which same-sex relationships are forbidden. Characters in Tomodachi Life can bicker, flirt, fall in love, marry, and move in together. But, for many gay people, the game’s denial of same-sex relationships reflected real-world systems that had been built to deny their lifestyle and their biology."

    What fandom-made events or works are your favorites? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW files amicus brief in Capitol Records vs Vimeo

    By Janita Burgess on Thursday, 31 July 2014 - 5:11pm
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    OTW Spotlight on Legal

    Together with a number of allies, OTW's Legal Committee filed an amicus brief Wednesday in the U.S. Second Circuit Court of Appeals in the case of Capitol Records v. Vimeo. The case began when the record labels sued Vimeo, alleging that a number of fanworks hosted on Vimeo's site infringed the record companies' copyrights.

    At this stage of the case, the question before the court has to do with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)'s "safe harbor" provision, which protects content hosts like Vimeo (and the AO3) from copyright liability for material posted by their users. Specifically, the court is addressing what constitutes "red flag" knowledge of infringing material that would require the hosting service to remove the material even without receiving a takedown notice. In the brief, the OTW and its allies argue, among other things, that the standard set by the trial court would place unreasonably high demands on sites that host user generated content and would chill valuable speech protected by the fair use doctrine.

    One of our partners, the EFF, has posted about the filing, stating "The safe harbors are critical to the Internet's success as a forum for innovative art, discussion, and expression of all kinds, forestalling crippling litigation that would force most websites to close their doors. Yet the district court created new liability, contrary to the law and the intent of Congress."

    Our joint brief highlights the value of fanworks and remix creativity, and explains how increasing liability for content hosts would chill creativity and undermine the objectives of the DMCA's safe harbor provisions, saying:

    "The burden would be especially significant for the many small and nonprofit platforms that host remix videos. Such videos often include music from a variety of sources, but the staff that run these sites won’t necessarily be music specialists able to determine when a given track was recorded. Indeed, many remix videos include multiple tracks, making the task still more challenging. The effect of this significantly increased cost and burden, combined with the accompanying uncertainty about potential liability for pre-1972 audio, would almost inevitably be to chill investment in or development of innovative services that might include such content. That chill, in turn, will inevitably stifle the creative works that depend on those services to reach an audience."

    We will keep fans informed on future developments in this case.

  • OTW Fannews: Fans Getting Informed

    By Claudia Rebaza on Wednesday, 30 July 2014 - 5:11pm
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    Banner by Sidhrat of one woman whispering to another who is cupping her ear.

    • When Amazon launched Kindle Worlds, OTW Legal offered advice to fans about its terms. Now, the OTW's ally organization, New Media Rights, has also examined the pros and cons of its publishing agreement with the post "Fine print to plain english: things to look out for as a Kindle World author."
    • The Bookseller's feature on author Rainbow Rowell's fanfiction past had an interesting response from J.K. Rowling’s literary agency, which set out guidelines for writers. "Our view on Harry Potter fan fiction is broadly that it should be non-commercial and should also not be distributed through commercial websites. Writers should write under their own name and not as J K Rowling. Content should not be inappropriate – also any content not suitable for young readers should be marked as age restricted.”
    • Jennifer Kate Stuller made available her keynote presentation on lessons learned from Whedonverse activism. "[T]his was the most personal presentation I’ve ever given, and I shared both strengths and vulnerabilities that I haven’t shared in a public forum before – doing so with the hope that personal braveries would have a communal impact. I looked out and saw a sea of tissues (and kerchiefs!) being drawn from bags and pockets. Hands and sleeves wiping eyes and noses. I was overwhelmed by your response (and might have missed a couple of sentences). More than that, your collective willingness to share your braveries, your sadnesses, your joys, your yearnings for connections and manifestations of love with me in that space proved what Tanya emphasized in her opening remarks – 'We’re here because of each other.'"
    • OTW Fan Video & Multimedia Chair Tisha Turk will be helping fans and the general public become more informed thanks to new award funding. "Despite the fact that vidding has been around for decades, little academic scholarship exists on the subject. Turk’s work will explore the rhetorical effects of images and music in vids, expanding and contributing to an underrepresented area of fan studies. Her findings will lead to a greater understanding of how media fans critically interact with digital entertainment."

    What lessons do you think need to be shared with fandom? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Global Fandom

    By Janita Burgess on Monday, 28 July 2014 - 5:03pm
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    OTW Fannews Banner: Global Fandom

    • The story of female volleyball fans in Iran was covered by many sites, including France24. "[T]hese sporting events are only for male eyes, since the 'morality police' — a special police force that seeks to fight 'moral corruption' and to combat those who violate Islamic law — have been systematically preventing women from attending volleyball tournaments since 2005. However, this prohibition does not apply to foreign women." While some women were able to get into games with the aid of foreign fans and by wearing the other team's jerseys, 50 women were arrested for attempting entry. As one woman said, "I don’t want to have to resort to ruses in order to support my team. I want to be able to walk into a sports stadium proud of my identity as an Iranian woman and a fan of my national team."
    • The Korea Times reported on how Korean fans making subtitles were being sued by U.S. drama producers. "Police are now questioning the 15 who were booked without physical detention. Investigators said they made Korean subtitles of American television dramas and movies without getting prior consent from the original producers and circulated their translations among Internet users through large online cafes. A police officer said on condition of anonymity that U.S. television drama producers tend not to exercise their copyrights if individual citizens violate the law. But, he said, the U.S. producers took legal action against illegal subtitle makers as they believed that the violators circulated their subtitles rapidly through the Internet and as a result the original producers experienced negative fallout on their earnings."
    • The Telegraph India talked with fans about their World Cup passions and which countries they supported. "Germany’s clinical 7-1 demolition of Brazil not just reignited the clash of continents at the Fifa World Cup but also confirmed that Calcutta has diversified its allegiance. Germany, The Netherlands, Spain, England, France and Italy now evoke equal passion among the city’s football faithful as the traditional Selecao and La Albicileste." Part of this difference is generational and star driven but "[w]hile age is a rough line of division that splits loyalties, it is not a watertight one. Families too apparently help shape who supports whom."

    What stories do you have to tell about your local fandoms? Write about them in Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Legal Confusion

    By Kiri Van Santen on Friday, 18 July 2014 - 5:17pm
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    • The Washington Post was one of many media outlets covering the U.S. Trademark Office's decision to cancel the Redskins trademark registration. "The 99-page decision by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board said the team’s name and logo are disparaging. It dilutes the Redskins’ legal protection against infringement and hinders the team’s ability to block counterfeit merchandise from entering the country. But its effect is largely symbolic. The ruling cannot stop the team from selling T-shirts, beer glasses and license-plate holders with the moniker or keep the team from trying to defend itself against others who try to profit from the logo."
    • The Wisconsin State Law Library pointed to a book about trademarks and fan-created content in the wake of the Klinger v. Conan Doyle Estate decision. The book in question is about trademarks and fan-created content from the perspective of trademark owners which doesn’t really acknowledge fans’ rights to make fair uses— but instead is about “tolerating” use. It’s an older work, and an example of the way that trademark owners used to assume that they were always the ones who got to decide how their works would be received.
    • io9 put a spotlight on a study about filk. "Women in the filk community are more likely than men to create original melodies to accompany their lyrics, while women are only somewhat more likely to borrow from others' lyrics than are men. Because filk is often viewed as an imitative culture, the tendency of women to depart from that ethos in creating their own melodies seems significant...female respondents were much more likely to define fair use as not profiting from others' work, and somewhat more likely to define it as giving credit to the original author and making private as opposed to public use of a protected work."
    • The YALSA blog posted about Fandom and Fair Use but made some problematic claims. For example, it does not actually discuss what fair use is and provides questionable examples. Crunchyroll claims to be fully licensed and even Disney has now embraced user-generated content. Instead what the YALSA post demonstrates is an example of copyright confusion: people think that some things aren’t “allowed” when in fact either fair use law or licensing is on their side.

    What confusing legal fandom issues have you come across? Write about them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Remembering the past

    By Claudia Rebaza on Sunday, 13 July 2014 - 5:54pm
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    Banner by Bremo of a timeline showing different fannish platforms starting with Geocities and ending with AO3

    • At The Atlantic, Courtney Klauser discussed her education in social networks thanks to fandom. "Looking back, I most miss the personal anonymity; an online existence without photography or video, a time when it was normal not to use your real name, when people could interact without demographic data being harvested for advertisers or shuffling people into neat demographic categories in the name of improved user experience...Yet the online world where I first encountered the pleasures of fan culture no longer exists at all."
    • Corinne Duyvis wrote at YA Highway about lessons learned while roleplaying. "My absolute biggest hobby as a teenager was online X-Men roleplaying...Roleplaying wasn’t fanfiction like most people know it, but it’s probably the most apt comparison—and that’s why it baffles me when people dismiss fandom as a waste of time for writers, or even call it actively damaging. It’s often the exact opposite. Without fandom, I wouldn’t be writing today. I wouldn’t have a shiny hardcover on shelves as of this month."
    • Author Peter David re-posted a poem about fandom he'd published in 2001 about the spread of fandom online. "And the Grynch straight away fashioned 'Fandom Dot Com/ By fans and for fans,' said the Grynch with aplomb/ The fans, they just loved it, they flocked by the ton/ And they told all their friends, and they came on the run/ Created new websites and posted the things/ On Star Wars, Godzilla, and Lord of the Rings/ The theory, you see, was by acting as one/ The fans would not ever be put on the run/ By studio lawyers with frozen-fish faces/ Subpoenas and letters and leather briefcases."
    • Elizabeth Minkel wrote in New Statesman about changing times. "It might be easy to forget that a little more than a decade ago, Warner Brothers was yanking down Harry Potter fan sites without warning, particularly those that 'sent the wrong message', like speculating that a character could be gay. Now media corporations are actively trying to create the kind of spaces for fan engagement that mimic the volume and enthusiasm of what’s historically been built from the bottom-up – organic celebrations of (and critical space to examine) a book or movie or television show or band. Now we’ve got 'official fan fiction partners' of a book or a movie, and even corporate-sponsored incentive – rewards, like access to special content, that sort of thing – to create more content in their spaces."

    What parts of fandom history do you remember? Write about it on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

  • OTW Fannews: Fandom Legal Topics

    By Claudia Rebaza on Tuesday, 10 June 2014 - 4:23pm
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    Banner by Sidhrat of a pair of glasses laid on an open book

    • The Age reported on a lawsuit involving the founders of The Writers Coffee Shop. "The lawsuit asks the court to recognise that TWCS is an ongoing partnership and, as a partner, Pedroza is entitled to 25 per cent of the profits. Pedroza and Beebe are seeking...'to trap funds not yet paid by Random House'" as a result of their rights purchase for Fifty Shades of Grey. The plaintiffs claim that Amanda "Hayward, 'fraudulently' restructured TWCS under the guise of tax minimisation, without the knowledge of the partners, so payments from the Random House deal, signed in March 2012, flowed exclusively to herself."
    • A post at Screen Invasion suggested that companies using Amazon's Kindle Worlds were setting a precedent for the “potential market” factor of fair use. However, it is the pornier side of fanfiction that is likely to be unaffected. "TV’s GG can show a blush-worthy encounter between Chuck and Blair in his limo’s spacious backseat...but Kindle Worlds can reject a GG fanfic that describes a similar tryst based on the author’s word-choice. Ergo, sites featuring only blue fan-fiction do not impact the same market(s) as their un-obscene peers." This argument tracks to the case involving The Wind Done Gone, since part of that legal argument was that there was no lost revenue because Margaret Mitchell's estate would never have licensed such a work.
    • Evergreen State College's student newspaper posted an open letter from faculty about threats to academic freedom involving a parody theater piece about Disney content. "On Monday of week eight, without consulting the faculty sponsors, Dean Reece issued a written request to fundamentally alter the script, with indication that the college would prevent the students from using campus facilities to perform the script as written." The letter cited the fair use aspects of the work and their belief that a fear of legal action was behind the effort to alter the performance.
    • TIME looked at aspects of One Direction fanfiction following a high-profile fanfic book deal. "Jamison also notes that the idea of making money from fanfiction — something long seen as dubious among fans, even as recently as 50 Shades of Grey — doesn’t seem to be so strange to younger and newer fanfic writers...After all, it’s much less legally thorny to file off those serial numbers when the inspiration is reality: changing the names of a boy band doesn’t risk overstepping the fair use of someone else’s creation. And besides, it’s a time-honored tradition. As Jamison says: 'Every fiction author bases their characters on real people.'”

    What fandom-related legal issues have you heard about? Create some entries for them on Fanlore! Contributions are welcome from all fans.

    We want your suggestions! If you know of an essay, video, article, podcast, or link you think we should know about, comment on the most recent OTW Fannews post. Links are welcome in all languages! Submitting a link doesn't guarantee that it will be included in a Fannews post, and inclusion of a link doesn't mean that it is endorsed by the OTW.

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